Abstract

We have investigated two novel concepts for the design of transmission lines in travelling wave Mach-Zehnder interferometer based Silicon Photonics depletion modulators overcoming the analog bandwidth limitations arising from cross-talk between signal lines in push-pull modulators and reducing the linear losses of the transmission lines. We experimentally validate the concepts and demonstrate an E/O −3 dBe bandwidth of 16 GHz with a 4V drive voltage (in dual drive configuration) and 8.8 dB on-chip insertion losses. Significant bandwidth improvements result from suppression of cross-talk. An additional bandwidth enhancement of ~11% results from a reduction of resistive transmission line losses. Frequency dependent loss models for loaded transmission lines and E/O bandwidth modeling are fully verified.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5118–5124 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature 4, 518–526 (2010).
  4. D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberg, G. Masini, S. Abdalla, J. Witzens, and S. Sahni, “10Gb/s 15mW Optical Receiver with Integrated Germanium Photodetector and Hybrid Inductor Peaking in 0.13μm SOI CMOS Technology,” Proc. 2010 IEEE Intern. Sol.-State Circ. Conf. (ISSCC), 360–361 (2010).
  5. J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed, monolithic CMOS receivers at 1550 nm with Ge on Si waveguide photodetectors,” Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. (LEOS), 848–849 (2007).
  7. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G.-R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Käertner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5218–5226 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
  11. T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. L. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Kucharski, B. Analui, L. C. Gunn, R. Koumans, T. Pinguet, and T. Sadagopan, “Distributed amplifier optical modulator,” U.S. Patent 7 899 276 (2011).
  19. J. Witzens, B. Analui, S. Mirsaidi, T. Sadagopan, B. Welch, and A. Narasimha, “Integrated control system for laser and Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” U.S. Patent 7 916 377 (2011).
  20. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. G. Cunningham, “Traveling wave optical modulator,” U.S. Patent 5 091 981 (1992).
  23. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ. 44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature 4, 518–526 (2010).

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Alloatti, L.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

Ang, K.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arcioni, P.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ. 44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Benight, S.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bojko, R.

Bolten, J.

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brosi, J. M.

Cassan, E.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chmielak, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

Dalton, L.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Ding, R.

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Eyssa, W.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ. 44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fournier, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

Gan, F.

Gardens, F. Y.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature 4, 518–526 (2010).

Geis, M. W.

Gondarenko, A.

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

Gwilliam, R. M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, N. C.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, Y.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Huang, S.

Ippen, E. P.

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jen, A.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Käertner, F. X.

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Komorowska, K.

Koos, C.

Korn, D.

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, B. P. P.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Kurz, H.

Kwong, D.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laval, S.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, P.

Lennon, D. M.

Leuthold, J.

Li, Y. L.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, A. E.

Liow, T. Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Luff, B. J.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature 4, 518–526 (2010).

Mashanovich, G. Z.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Matheisen, C.

Merget, F.

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myslivets, E.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Nagel, M.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orcutt, J. S.

Osmond, J.

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pantouvaki, M.

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinguet, T.

Poitras, C. B.

Preston, K.

Radic, S.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Reed, G.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature 4, 518–526 (2010).

Repossi, M.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ. 44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ripperda, C.

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulein, R. T.

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Spector, S. J.

Streshinsky, M.

Sullivan, P.

Svelto, F.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ. 44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Teo, S. H. G.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature 4, 518–526 (2010).

Thomson, J.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Van Campenhout, J.

Vecchi, F.

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ. 44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Witzens, J.

Xiong, Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J. U.

Yu, H.

Yu, M.

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, G.-R.

Zlatanovic, S.

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234–236 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Y. Liow, K. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardens, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

J. Solid-State Circ. (1)

F. Vecchi, M. Repossi, W. Eyssa, P. Arcioni, and F. Svelto, “Design of Low-Loss Transmission Lines in Scaled CMOS by Accurate Electromagnetic Simulations,” J. Solid-State Circ. 44(9), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature 4, 518–526 (2010).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Käertner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5218–5226 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5118–5124 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. L. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

D. G. Cunningham, “Traveling wave optical modulator,” U.S. Patent 5 091 981 (1992).

D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberg, G. Masini, S. Abdalla, J. Witzens, and S. Sahni, “10Gb/s 15mW Optical Receiver with Integrated Germanium Photodetector and Hybrid Inductor Peaking in 0.13μm SOI CMOS Technology,” Proc. 2010 IEEE Intern. Sol.-State Circ. Conf. (ISSCC), 360–361 (2010).

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed, monolithic CMOS receivers at 1550 nm with Ge on Si waveguide photodetectors,” Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. (LEOS), 848–849 (2007).

D. Kucharski, B. Analui, L. C. Gunn, R. Koumans, T. Pinguet, and T. Sadagopan, “Distributed amplifier optical modulator,” U.S. Patent 7 899 276 (2011).

J. Witzens, B. Analui, S. Mirsaidi, T. Sadagopan, B. Welch, and A. Narasimha, “Integrated control system for laser and Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” U.S. Patent 7 916 377 (2011).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscope image of the electro-optic modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view (a) and cross-sectional schematic (b) of the investigated modulators (not to scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase shifts induced in the top (red curve) and bottom (blue curve) MZI arms as a function of applied voltages. The inset shows exemplary transmission spectra for several applied voltages (see legend).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electro-optical transmission coefficient S21 as a function of the RF-frequency. The experimental data is compared to models calibrated with experimental data taking into account transmission line losses and phase mismatch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signals for (a) the conventional and (b) the advanced driving scheme.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission coefficients S21,RF (blue trace, transmission through signal line 1) and S31,RF (red trace, cross-talk to signal line 2) measured at the end of the transmission line for an RF signal applied only to signal line 1, corresponding to the cross-talk occurring in the conventional driving scheme. Dashed curves are measured and continuous curves are modeled. The black curve shows the measured transmission coefficient S21,RF* of the symmetric mode, for comparison, corresponding to RF losses in the advanced driving signal scheme. (b) Modeled S21,RF and S31,RF for an MZI modulator with a doubled, 8 mm length. Here too, the blue line is the RF transmission and the red line shows the cross-talk. (c-e) Super-modes supported by the GSSG-transmission line (Ey). The symmetric mode has an anti-symmetric Ey field, but symmetric voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) conventional design of a loaded transmission line, (b) advanced design with interleaved electrode extensions (c) lumped element representation of the current flow. The microscope image shows a detail of the electrode extensions in the real modulator. The dark boxes are the metal electrode extensions; the colored areas represent the different doping regions. Grey areas are signal and ground line, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission line attenuation for the modulator with and without electrode extensions. The y-axis corresponds to α rather than α in order to make the trend predicted by Eq. (1) apparent by a linear progression. Continuous lines are fitted according to Eq. (1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

TDR measurement of S11 for conventional (blue curve) and advanced transmission line design with electrode extensions (green curve).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical transmission coefficient S21 of the conventional baseline modulator (blue) and a modulator with an advanced transmission line design with interleaved electrode extensions (green). Solid lines are models based on experimentally extracted parameters.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of measured and modeled bandwidths for the modulator with and without electrode extensions

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α(f)= α 0 f + R WG ' (2πf C WG ' ) 2 Z TL = α 0 f + α 1 f 2 ,
L eff = 0 L e α/2x dx
V sym = [ 0 5.26 5.26 0 ], I sym =[ 0.096 0.096 0.096 0.096 ] V asym1 =[ 2.89 1.59 1.59 2.89 ],I asym1 =[ 0.109 0.112 0.112 0.109 ], V asym2 =[ 3.72 3.59 3.59 3.72 ], I asym2 =[ 0.058 0.079 0.079 0.058 ]
V in,0 =[ 0 1 0 0 ]= [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] AC + [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] DC , V in,1 =[ 0 0 1 0 ]= [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] AC + [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] DC
V in,0 =[ 0 1 0 0 ]= [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] AC + [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] DC V in,1 =[ 0 0 1 0 ]= [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] AC + [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] DC ,
V in,0 =[ 0 1 1 1 ]= [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] AC + [ 0 1/2 1/2 1 ] DC V in,1 =[ 0 0 0 1 ]= [ 0 1/2 1/2 0 ] AC + [ 0 1/2 1/2 1 ] DC

Metrics