Abstract

We propose a novel source based on a dual-drive modulator that is adaptable and allows Alice to choose between various practical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols depending on what receiver she is communicating with. Experimental results show that the proposed transmitter is suitable for implementation of the Bennett and Brassard 1984 (BB84), coherent one-way (COW) and differential phase shift (DPS) protocols with stable and low quantum bit error rate. This could become a useful component in network QKD, where multi-protocol capability is highly desirable.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (3)

C. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, P. Chen, C. H. F. Fung, H. F. Chau, M. M. T. Loy, and S. Du, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using heralded narrow-band single photons,” Opt. Express21, 9505–9513 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, and A. L. Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 141104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics7, 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

T. Lunghi, C. Barreiro, O. Guinnard, R. Houlmann, X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, and H. Zbinden, “Free-running single-photon detection based on a negative feedback InGaAs APD,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 1481–1488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, O. Guinnard, R. Houlmann, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Sine gating detector with simple filtering for low-noise infra-red single photon detection at room temperature,” Appl. Phys.112, 063106 (2012).

M. Tomamichel, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and R. Renner, “Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography,” Nature Communications3(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, and A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett.37, 223–225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

J. Capmany and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, “Quantum model for electro-optical phase modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, A119–A129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, “Quantum model for electro-optical amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 25127–25142 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tomita, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, W. Maeda, S. Miki, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “High speed quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16, 55–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Lancho, J. Martínez-Mateo, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martin, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking(2010), vol. 36, pp. 142–149.
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express18, 27217–27225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys.11, 105001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and V. Scarani, “Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography,” New J Phys.10, 013031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H.-K. Lo and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution using weak coherent states with nonrandom phases,” Quantum Info. Comput.7, 431–458 (2007).

2006 (1)

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K.-P. Ho and H.-W. Cuei, “Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator,” J. Light-wave Technol.23, 764–770 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, and H. Zbinden, “Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 194108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. Scarani, A. Acin, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 057901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys.74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6, 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. Wiesner, “Conjugate coding,” SIGACT News15, 78–88 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.27, 379–423 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Acin, A.

V. Scarani, A. Acin, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 057901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anzolin, G.

Asai, T.

Attanasio, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6, 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics7, 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, C.

T. Lunghi, C. Barreiro, O. Guinnard, R. Houlmann, X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, and H. Zbinden, “Free-running single-photon detection based on a negative feedback InGaAs APD,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 1481–1488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing(IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Ben-Or, M.

M. Ben-Or, M. Horodecki, D. Leung, D. Mayers, and J. Oppenheim, “The universal composable security of quantum key distribution,” inTheory of Cryptography, vol. 3378 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, J. Kilian, ed. (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 386–406.
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J. C.

A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, and A. L. Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 141104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6, 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boxleitner, W.

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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
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Maurhart, O.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Ben-Or, M. Horodecki, D. Leung, D. Mayers, and J. Oppenheim, “The universal composable security of quantum key distribution,” inTheory of Cryptography, vol. 3378 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, J. Kilian, ed. (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 386–406.
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E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quantum Electron.6, 69–82 (2000).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys.11, 105001 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys.11, 105001 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys.11, 105001 (2009).
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A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, and A. L. Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 141104 (2013).
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Miki, S.

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics7, 210–214 (2013).
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Mitchell, M. W.

Monat, L.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys.13, 123001 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys.13, 123001 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics7, 210–214 (2013).
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Nauerth, S.

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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys.11, 105001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys.13, 123001 (2011).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys.11, 105001 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys.11, 105001 (2009).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys.11, 075001 (2009).
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A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, and A. L. Migdall, “Single-photon detection efficiency up to 50% at 1310 nm with an InGaAs/InP avalanche diode gated at 1.25 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 141104 (2013).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the multi-protocol QKD transmitter and of three potential QKD receivers running the (a) COW, (b) DPS or (c) BB84 protocols. The transmitter is composed of a dual-drive modulator which transforms the output of a continuous wave (CW) distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, followed by a variable optical attenuator (VOA). A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) drives two radio frequency (RF) pulse generators by pulse sequences required for the relevant protocols. The receiver is implemented using an interferometer with an optical path difference coresponding to a time delay τ and single photon detectors (SPD). The abstract component in between the transmitter and receivers represents an actively or passively switched network establishing the connection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Complex plane representation for the rising edge progression of optical pulses generated by either (a) maintaining the phase shift of DDM arm 2 at zero, whilst applying a phase shift of +π to arm 1 or (b) applying the +π phase shift to arm 2 whilst keeping arm 1 at zero. Curve (c) shows the effect of applying a negative phase shift −π in arm 1. (d) Illustrates push-pull operation achieved by applying ϕ1 = π/2 and ϕ2 = π/2 simultaneously. The instantaneous field amplitude of the optical pulses is represented by the radial distance from the origin (with a maximum of α), whilst the optical phase difference between two pulses is represented by the angle ΔΦ. Inset: Optical phase difference as a function of optical field amplitude, between pulses (a) and (b) along with (a) and (c). The latter results in a varying phase difference, unsuitable for phase coding. (e) Illustrates a comparison of phase coding using the chirp free (push-pull) and chirped methods when operating with noisy multi-level drive signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coding scheme for time-phase quantum state preparation, enabling the use of COW (a), DPS (b) and BB84 (c) protocols; Positive and negative electrical pulses (push-pull operation) in the two arms of the DDM produce the time basis states, whilst two consecutive positive pulses, either in the same arm or alternate arms, produce the phase basis states. All of the states for COW and DPS can be generated using DDM drive signals with only 2 voltage levels. BB84 requires a 3 level signal for arm 2 of the modulator, since the time and phase bases require negative and positive pulses in this arm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sweep of the DDM clock frequency to find the optimum intereferometer visibility. Correspondingly, the chosen operating frequency was 1.25 GHz, with a raw visibility of 99.76 ± 0.04%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Time basis extinction ratio for the two bit values encoded with light being sent in the early or late time bins, created using push-pull operation of the DDM as for COW and the BB84 time basis. (b) Phase basis pulse shape with bits encoded in the relative phase of 0 or π between two pulses, created using RF drive pulses of maximum amplitude as used for the DPS protocol.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured sifted rate, secret rate, QBER and visibility (converted into phase-error rate for direct comparison) using the COW protocol. (b) Sifted rate, secret rate and phase-error rate for the DPS protocol for different losses in the quantum channel. (c) Measured QBER in the time and phase bases along with the sifted and secret rates for randomly prepared pulse sequences using the BB84 protocol. The sifted rates in each figure are plotted as a function of the photon number at the receiver (bottom axis), whilst the secret key rates are presented as a function of fibre length (top axis) assuming losses of 0.2 dB/km.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) QBER measurement for COW protocol over a period of 40 hours, showing a stable average value of 1.2% obtained with parameter estimation on 12.5% of the sifted bits. This value is also verified separately by utilising the full detection statistics (QBER Actual). DDM bias voltage tracking is also shown, which was the main variable parameter used for QBER minimization. (b) Stable visibility measurement over the same 40 hour period, with an average value of 96.5%. In this case the laser current was adjusted for stabilization.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical QBER.

Equations (4)

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| α e i ( θ 1 + ϕ 1 ) + e i ( θ 2 + ϕ 2 ) 2 | α .
| ψ = e i ϕ 1 e i ϕ 2 2 | α ,
Re [ ψ ] = 1 2 [ cos ϕ 1 cos ϕ 2 ]
Im [ ψ ] = 1 2 [ sin ϕ 1 sin ϕ 2 ] .

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