Abstract

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of integrated Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides. The Bragg gratings are formed with sidewall corrugations, either on the inside or on the outside of the waveguide. We demonstrate resonators implemented using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguides, showing quality factors up to 3 × 104. Due to the strong optical confinement in the slot, these devices are promising for optical sensing applications. The devices were fabricated using a CMOS-compatible process, facilitating high-volume and low-cost production.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express21, 3633–3650 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J.3, 422–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express19, 10950–10958 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Contradirectional couplers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 3999–4001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saynatjoki, L. Karvonen, T. Alasaarela, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, M. Hiltunen, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express19, 26275–26282 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.34, 1357–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Prabhathan, V. M. Murukeshan, Z. Jing, and P. V. Ramana, “Compact SOI nanowire refractive index sensor using phase shifted Bragg grating,” Opt. Express17, 15330–15341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. VanThourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86, 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2005

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20, 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Adam, K.

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

Aitchison, J. S.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86, 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

Alloatti, L.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Ayache, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. VanThourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C.

J. Blasco and C. Barrios, “Compact slot-waveguide/channel-waveguide mode-converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe). p. 607 (2005).

Barrios, C. A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Biaggio, I.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blasco, J.

J. Blasco and C. Barrios, “Compact slot-waveguide/channel-waveguide mode-converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe). p. 607 (2005).

Bogaerts, W.

Bojko, R.

Bolten, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brosi, J.-M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chen, R.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

Chen, S.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. C.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express21, 3633–3650 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Contradirectional couplers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 3999–4001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

Chros-towski, L.

Claes, T.

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

A. S. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86, 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diederich, F.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Doerfler, M.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Donzella, V.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dou, J.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86, 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. VanThourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 4076–4083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fard, S. T.

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Flueckiger, J.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, M.

Frank, B.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

A. S. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86, 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goodberlet, J. G.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20, 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, M.

Griol, A.

Grist, S.

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grist, S. M.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Hastings, J. T.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20, 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.19, 1938–1942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heni, W.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C.

Hiltunen, M.

Hochberg, M.

Holgado, M.

Honkanen, S.

Ikeda, K.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express21, 3633–3650 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Contradirectional couplers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 3999–4001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

Jaenen, P.

Jiang, G.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

Jiang, X.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

Jing, Z.

Jugessur, A. S.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86, 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karl, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Karvonen, L.

Kee, J.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khajavikhan, M.

Kim, H.-C.

Kim, W.-J.

Kirk, J.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korn, D.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leckel, E.

E. Leckel, J. Sang, E. U. Wagemann, and E. Mueller, “Impact of source spontaneous emission (SSE) on the measurement of DWDM components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper WB4 (2000).

Leuthold, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Z.

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, M. H.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20, 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mechet, P.

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Millspaugh, A.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Molera, J.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, E.

E. Leckel, J. Sang, E. U. Wagemann, and E. Mueller, “Impact of source spontaneous emission (SSE) on the measurement of DWDM components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper WB4 (2000).

Murphy, T. E.

Murukeshan, V. M.

Nezhad, M. P.

Nie, B.

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Malley, T.

Ouellet, E.

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

Prabhathan, P.

Ramana, P. V.

Ratner, D. M.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, W.

Roels, J.

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, B.

Sang, J.

E. Leckel, J. Sang, E. U. Wagemann, and E. Mueller, “Impact of source spontaneous emission (SSE) on the measurement of DWDM components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper WB4 (2000).

Saperstein, R. E.

Saynatjoki, A.

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schelew, E.

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, P.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S. A.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scimeca, M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

Shi, W.

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express21, 3633–3650 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Contradirectional couplers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 3999–4001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

Slutsky, B.

Smith, H. I.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20, 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.19, 1938–1942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

Song, J.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

Talebi Fard, S.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D. T. H.

Tervonen, A.

Tu, X.

Vafaei, R.

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).

Van Acoleyen, K.

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

VanThourhout, D.

Wagemann, E. U.

E. Leckel, J. Sang, E. U. Wagemann, and E. Mueller, “Impact of source spontaneous emission (SSE) on the measurement of DWDM components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper WB4 (2000).

Wahlbrink, T.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Waldow, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

Wang, X.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express21, 3633–3650 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Contradirectional couplers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 3999–4001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

Wang, Y.

Webb, M.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

Xu, Q.

Yagnyukova, M.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

Young, J. F.

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

Yu, M.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yun, H.

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express21, 3633–3650 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

Zamek, S.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Contradirectional couplers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 3999–4001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Conf.

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” in IEEE Photon. Conf. pp. 869–870 (2011).

IEEE Photon. J.

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J.3, 422–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Ultracompact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 779–788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J.5, 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 6–9 (2011).

H. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Song, J. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible fabrication of silicon-based sub-100-nm slot waveguide with efficient channel-slot coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 10–12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20, 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

A. S. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Gnan, “A photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng.86, 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express18, 25061–25067 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express19, 10950–10958 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saynatjoki, L. Karvonen, T. Alasaarela, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, M. Hiltunen, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express19, 26275–26282 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express21, 3633–3650 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chros-towski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express21, 6733–6738 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Prabhathan, V. M. Murukeshan, Z. Jing, and P. V. Ramana, “Compact SOI nanowire refractive index sensor using phase shifted Bragg grating,” Opt. Express17, 15330–15341 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology – a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophoton. (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. Adam, E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” in IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), San Diego, CA, 2012, paper ThP 17 (2012).

J. Blasco and C. Barrios, “Compact slot-waveguide/channel-waveguide mode-converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe). p. 607 (2005).

E. Leckel, J. Sang, E. U. Wagemann, and E. Mueller, “Impact of source spontaneous emission (SSE) on the measurement of DWDM components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper WB4 (2000).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of a slot waveguide. (a) Schematic diagram and the simulated mode profile for the fundamental quasi-TE mode. Warm = 270 nm, Wslot = 150 nm, H = 220 nm, and the upper cladding material is silicon oxide. (b) SEM image of the focused ion beam (FIB) milled cross section of a fabricated device (the small hole in the centre was due to the incomplete coating of platinum deposited to protect the waveguides during the FIB milling).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams (not to scale) of the slot waveguide Bragg gratings with corrugations (a) inside and (b) outside.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view SEM images of the fabricated slot waveguide Bragg gratings: (a) corrugation inside for Wslot = 150 nm, Warm = 270 nm, and ΔWin = 20 nm. (b) corrugations outside for Wslot = 150 nm, Warm = 270 nm, and ΔWout = 40 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase-shifted Bragg gratings with corrugations on the outside of the slot waveguide: (a) schematic diagram (not to scale), (b) SEM image showing the phase shift region of a fabricated device, (c) transmission spectrum simulated by FDTD with the following geometric parameters: WG1, ΔWout = 40 nm, and N = 50.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field distributions for light incident from the left at (a) 1543 nm and (b) 1550 nm. The simulation parameters are the same as in Fig. 4(c). The field was recorded at the middle of the silicon waveguide in the vertical direction (i.e., corresponding to the plane of y=110 nm in Fig. 1(a)).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic diagram of the device layout (not to scale, inset shows an SEM image of a fabricated slot waveguide Bragg grating), and SEM images of (b) the Y-branch and (c) the mode converter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured raw spectra of a uniform grating designed on WG1 with ΔWout = 10 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured transmission spectra of the uniform gratings designed on WG1. (a) corrugations inside, (b) corrugations outside.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured bandwidth versus designed corrugation width on WG1 and WG2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured raw spectra of a phase-shifted grating designed on WG1 with ΔWout = 40 nm and N = 300.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Measured transmission spectra for phase-shifted gratings designed on WG1 with ΔWout = 40 nm and various lengths, (b) Q factor as a function of N.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design variations for uniform slot waveguide Bragg gratings.

Equations (1)

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Q I = 2 π n g 4.34 λ 100 α [ d B / c m ]

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