Abstract

We report the first Yb:ZBLAN and Yb:IOG10 waveguide lasers fabricated by the fs-laser direct-writing technique. Pulses from a Titanium-Sapphire laser oscillator with 5.1 MHz repetition rate were utilized to generate negative refractive index modifications in both glasses. Multiple modifications were aligned in a depressed cladding geometry to create a waveguide. For Yb:ZBLAN we demonstrate high laser slope efficiency of 84% with a maximum output power of 170 mW. By using Yb:IOG10 a laser performance of 25% slope efficiency and 72 mW output power was achieved and we measured a remarkably high refractive index change exceeding Δn = 2.3 × 10−2.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond laser induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(5), 574–583 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-5-574 .
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (7)

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express20(25), 27503–27509 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-25-27503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Müller, T. Calmano, P. Metz, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Femtosecond-laser-written diode-pumped Pr:LiYF4 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5223–5225 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-24-5223 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, C. Corbari, G. Brambilla, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Tunable, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire channel waveguide lasers written by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4630–4632 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-22-4630 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

A. Choudhary, A. A. Lagatsky, P. Kannan, W. Sibbett, C. T. A. Brown, and D. P. Shepherd, “Diode-pumped femtosecond solid-state waveguide laser with a 4.9 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4416–4418 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-21-4416 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1691–1693 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-10-1691 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3999–4001 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-19-3999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1966 (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in a 4-level-lasers,” Phys. Lett.20(3), 277–278 (1966), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031916366903635 .
[CrossRef]

Aiello, L.

Ams, M.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3999–4001 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-19-3999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-9-1587 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dekker, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Little, and M. J. Withford, “Annealing dynamics of waveguide Bragg gratings: evidence of femtosecond laser induced colour centres,” Opt. Express18(4), 3274–3283 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-4-3274 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 247–249 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-3-247 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beecher, S. J.

Bernhardi, E. H.

Borrelli, N. F.

Brambilla, G.

Brown, C. T. A.

Brown, G.

Calmano, T.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, W.-J.

Chiodo, N.

Choudhary, A.

Clay, R. A.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in a 4-level-lasers,” Phys. Lett.20(3), 277–278 (1966), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031916366903635 .
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

De Nicola, S.

de Ridder, R. M.

Dekker, P.

Eaton, S. M.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Erbert, G.

Ferraro, P.

Fiebig, C.

Findlay, D.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in a 4-level-lasers,” Phys. Lett.20(3), 277–278 (1966), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031916366903635 .
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

Fuerbach, A.

S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond laser induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(5), 574–583 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-5-574 .
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express20(25), 27503–27509 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-25-27503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3999–4001 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-19-3999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-9-1587 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grivas, C.

Gross, S.

S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond laser induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(5), 574–583 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-5-574 .
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express20(25), 27503–27509 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-25-27503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3999–4001 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-19-3999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-9-1587 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, N.-O.

Heidepriem, H. E.

Herman, P. R.

Ho, S.

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Jaque, D.

Kannan, P.

Kar, A. K.

Killi, A.

Kopf, D.

Kränkel, C.

Kuan, K.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lagoudakis, P. G.

Lancaster, D. G.

S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond laser induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(5), 574–583 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-5-574 .
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express20(25), 27503–27509 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-25-27503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3999–4001 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-19-3999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-9-1587 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

Lederer, M.

Li, J.

Little, D. J.

Marshall, G. D.

Mary, R.

Maselli, V.

Metz, P.

Miese, C. T.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Morgner, U.

Müller, S.

Ng, M. L.

Ohara, S.

Osellame, R.

Palmer, G.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, A.-G.

Paschke, K.

Petermann, K.

Pierattini, G.

Pollnau, M.

Shepherd, D. P.

Sibbett, W.

Siebenmorgen, J.

Streltsov, A. M.

Svelto, O.

Taccheo, S.

Thomson, R. R.

Valle, G. D.

van Wolferen, H. A. G. M.

Williams, R. J.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond laser induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(5), 574–583 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-5-574 .
[CrossRef]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3999–4001 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-19-3999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express20(25), 27503–27509 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-25-27503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-9-1587 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dekker, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Little, and M. J. Withford, “Annealing dynamics of waveguide Bragg gratings: evidence of femtosecond laser induced colour centres,” Opt. Express18(4), 3274–3283 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-4-3274 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 247–249 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-3-247 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wörhoff, K.

Yin, A.

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

Zhang, H.

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.3(4), 332–348 (2012), doi: (IJAGS).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (9)

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett.37(19), 3999–4001 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-19-3999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1691–1693 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-10-1691 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 247–249 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-3-247 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Bernhardi, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Highly efficient, low-threshold monolithic distributed-Bragg-reflector channel waveguide laser in Al2O3:Yb3+.,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 603–605 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-5-603 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Choudhary, A. A. Lagatsky, P. Kannan, W. Sibbett, C. T. A. Brown, and D. P. Shepherd, “Diode-pumped femtosecond solid-state waveguide laser with a 4.9 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4416–4418 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-21-4416 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-9-1587 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.29(22), 2626–2628 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-22-2626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Müller, T. Calmano, P. Metz, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Femtosecond-laser-written diode-pumped Pr:LiYF4 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5223–5225 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-24-5223 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, C. Corbari, G. Brambilla, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Tunable, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire channel waveguide lasers written by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4630–4632 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-37-22-4630 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in a 4-level-lasers,” Phys. Lett.20(3), 277–278 (1966), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031916366903635 .
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Comparison of Tm:ZBLAN and Tm:silica fiber lasers; Spectroscopy and tunable pulsed laser operation around 1.9 μm,” App. Phys. B 78, 325–333 (2004) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00340-003-1393-2?LI=true#

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 535–544 (2009) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lpor.200810050/abstract

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, (2011) http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v2/n11/full/ncomms1570.html
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quant. Electron. 35, 159–239 (2011) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079672711000139
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” App. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00339-003-2088-6
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional microscope images (laser incident from the top) of: (a) single modification in Yb:ZBLAN (80 nJ, 1000 mm/min), (b) depressed cladding in Yb:ZBLAN (identical fabrication parameters), (c) single modification in Yb:IOG10 (1.25 NA objective), (d) Yb:IOG10: reduced pointiness of the bottom tip by utilizing the 1.4 NA objective; (arbitrary magnifications).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) MFD as function of pump duration (insets: start profiles [left] and profiles after 24 hrs pumping [right]). (b) Average modification size (vert. and horiz. data points) versus writing speed and pulse energy for Yb:IOG10.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Selection of investigated waveguide geometries in Yb:IOG10. The writing laser beam was incident from the top. The arrow highlights the principle location of additional waveguide structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode field profiles at λ = 974 nm: (a) Yb:ZBLAN-WG, (b) Yb:IOG10: measured refractive index profile (left) of the structure in Fig. 3(c) and mode-field profiles (right) of the waveguides at location 1 and 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of WGL setup, AL: aspheric lens, CL: collimation lens, OC: output coupler.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output power curves for Yb:IOG10 (left) and Yb:ZBLAN (right) with different OC-mirrors, inset showing far field mode of each guide at maximum output power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Yb:IOG10 power spectrum (left) measured at maximum output power (Δλ = 0.01 nm); Yb:ZBLAN spectra (right): top showing high resolved spectrum Δλ = 0.01 nm at 1036 nm centre wavelength and lower illustrates free running wavelength loop observed within approximately 12 min.

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