Abstract

Interplay between adjacent dipoles is an experimental priori for designing artificially-engineered structure because the dipole coupling is one critical factor for determining the electromagnetic response in metamaterials. Although numerous investigations have been performed to study the coupling effect of the split-ring resonator (SRR), the interlayer dipole coupling of its complementary SRR, called C-SRR, has been largely unexplored. Here, we present experimental and theoretical investigations on the electromagnetic coupling effect in the two stacks of layered C-SRR structures. By adjusting the relative lateral distance between the two-dimensionally stacked meta-structures, we observe that the confined magnetic dipole plays an important role in determining the resonance frequency and the bandwidth broadening of the C-SRR, exhibiting an exactly opposite behavior to the SRR structure. Our investigation provides experimental basis for developing frequency tunable three-dimensional metamaterial devices.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(21), 213902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 157–162 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3996–3998 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(21), 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baena, J. D.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beruete, M.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonache, J.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandl, D. W.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

Choi, M.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekmekci, E.

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, F.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frimmer, M.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(21), 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, T.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, N.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

Kadlec, C.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.-Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S. B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiser, G.

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, A. F.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(21), 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreß, M.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kužel, P.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, M. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laso, M. A.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, F.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

Lee, S. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loa, I.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopetegi, T.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marqués, R.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín, F.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyrath, T.

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mounaix, P.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, H.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

Oubre, C.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, E.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, A.

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sersic, I.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(21), 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorolla, M.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(19), 197401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, C.

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Syassen, K.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M.

T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(19), 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turhan-Sayan, G.

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(21), 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yahiaoui, R.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, F. Kadlec, C. Kadlec, R. Yahiaoui, and P. Mounaix, “Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Zentgraf, T. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B76(3), 033407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

E. Ekmekci, C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, and R. D. Averitt, “Frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials using broadside coupled split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B83(19), 193103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Plasmon hybridization in stacked cut-wire metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.19(21), 3628–3632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241108 (2010).
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Nano Lett. (2)

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

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Nat. Photonics (2)

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Nature (2)

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

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Science (6)

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T. Löffler, M. Kreß, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S134–S141 (2005).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of proposed metamaterial structures. Schematics of the double-layered C-SRR (a) and SRR (b) are shown with the following geometrical parameters: width w = 30 μm, length l = 90 μm, and overlap distance s = 0, 15, 30, and 45 μm. Insets are the optical microscopy images of both structures with periodicity p = 135 μm. The incident THz field is directed downwards with the rotated polarization of 90 ° for the C-SRR compared to the SRR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission spectra of the double-layered C-SRR (symbols) with various s = 0, 15, 30, and 45 μm and the simulation results (lines) performed by high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) (a). Inset of (a) is the measured transmission spectra of the double-layered SRR with the same s. The resonance frequency (b) and the 3 dB bandwidth (c) of both structures with the simulation results (lines) are shown as a function of the s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra of the single and the double layered SRR (a) and the corresponding C-SRR structures (b) at s = 0 μm. The antisymmetric plasmon mode ωa and the symmetric plasmon mode ωs (both arise from the coupling of the two meta-atoms between the stacked layers) are clearly shown in the SRR; however, the resonance frequency ωc is hardly changed for the single and the double layered C-SRR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top and cross-sectional views of both split-ring resonators with s (a). The length of electric dipole aSRR (red arrows) in the SRR does not change with s; whereas the length of magnetic dipole aC-SRR varies because the magnetic dipoles are induced in the effective slits. By increasing s, the coupling distance dx is decreased (increased) in SRR (C-SRR). (b) Calculated local magnetic field distribution of the double-layered C-SRR and the corresponding optical microscopy images. Strong field enhancements at the edge of the effective slits represent the induced magnetic dipoles. The effective slit length leff decreases with increasing s as shown in optical microscopy images.

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