Abstract

We demonstrate a cost-effective top-down approach for fabricating InGaN/GaN nanorod arrays using a wet treatment process in a KOH solution. The average diameter of the as-etched nanorods was effectively reduced from 420 nm to 180 nm. The spatial strain distribution was then investigated by measuring the high-resolution cathodoluminescence directly on top of the nanorods. The smaller nanorods showed a higher internal quantum efficiency and lower potential fluctuation, which can subsequently be exploited for high-efficiency photonic devices.

© 2013 OSA

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  47. J. M. Lee, C. Huh, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Dry-etch damage and its recovery in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(6), 530–534 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 2600111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-21) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Bardoux, M. Funato, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Complex strain distribution in individual facetted InGaN/GaN nano-columnar heterostructures,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 47–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

P. Shields, M. Hugues, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, M. Cooke, M. Dineen, W. Wang, F. Causa, and D. Allsopp, “Fabrication and properties of etched GaN nanorods,” Phys. Status Solidi8(3–4), 631–634 (2012) (c).

C. H. Chang, L. Y. Chen, L. C. Huang, Y. T. Wang, T. C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of strains and defects on the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Hsu, Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, and Y. F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Photon. Nano. Fund. Appl.10(4), 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrel, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Li and A. Waag, “GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys.111(7), 071101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Madaria, M. Yao, C. Y. Chi, N. Huang, C. Lin, R. Li, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2839–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Y. H. Ko, J. H. Kim, L. H. Jin, S. M. Ko, B. J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, S. J. Jang, J. H. Ha, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Multifunctional light escaping architecture inspired by compound eye surface structures: From understanding to experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express19(S2Suppl 2), A157–A165 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Kuech and L. J. Mawst, “Nanofabrication of III–V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(18), 183001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull.34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-dependent strain relaxation and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song and Y. T. Lee, “Investigation of geometrical effects of antireflective subwavelength grating structures for optical device applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron.41(10), 771–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, S. Y. Bae, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Closely packed and aspect-ratio-controlled antireflection subwavelength gratings on GaAs using a lenslike shape transfer,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1702–1704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2006

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. H. Hsueh, M. C. Ou-Yang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of InGaN-based nanorods fabricated by plasma etching with nanoscale nickel metal islands,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(4), 1909–1912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Gibart, “Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67(5), 667–715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. M. Lee, C. Huh, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Dry-etch damage and its recovery in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(6), 530–534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Saijou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi183(1), 41–50 (2001) (a).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. F. Leboeuf, M. P. D’evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4313–4315 (2001).

2000

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).

1999

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent progress in selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of III-nitrides: effects of reactor pressure in MOVPE growth,” Phys. Status Solidi176(1), 535–543 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III–V nitrides: conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi216(1), 391–398 (1999) (b).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang,, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).

Allsopp, D.

P. Shields, M. Hugues, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, M. Cooke, M. Dineen, W. Wang, F. Causa, and D. Allsopp, “Fabrication and properties of etched GaN nanorods,” Phys. Status Solidi8(3–4), 631–634 (2012) (c).

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).

Arif, R. A.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, S. D.

X. A. Cao, S. F. Leboeuf, M. P. D’evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4313–4315 (2001).

Bae, S. Y.

Bai, J.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bardoux, R.

Bergbauer, W.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III–V nitrides: conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi216(1), 391–398 (1999) (b).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. F. Leboeuf, M. P. D’evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4313–4315 (2001).

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang,, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Causa, F.

P. Shields, M. Hugues, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, M. Cooke, M. Dineen, W. Wang, F. Causa, and D. Allsopp, “Fabrication and properties of etched GaN nanorods,” Phys. Status Solidi8(3–4), 631–634 (2012) (c).

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Chang, C. Y.

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-dependent strain relaxation and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

Chen, H. L.

C. W. Hsu, Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, and Y. F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Photon. Nano. Fund. Appl.10(4), 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Cheng, Y. W.

Chi, C. Y.

A. R. Madaria, M. Yao, C. Y. Chi, N. Huang, C. Lin, R. Li, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2839–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichibu, S. F.

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull.34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-dependent strain relaxation and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang,, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

Y. H. Ko, J. H. Kim, L. H. Jin, S. M. Ko, B. J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y. F.

C. W. Hsu, Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, and Y. F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Photon. Nano. Fund. Appl.10(4), 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. H. Hsueh, M. C. Ou-Yang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of InGaN-based nanorods fabricated by plasma etching with nanoscale nickel metal islands,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(4), 1909–1912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, U. I.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, M.

P. Shields, M. Hugues, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, M. Cooke, M. Dineen, W. Wang, F. Causa, and D. Allsopp, “Fabrication and properties of etched GaN nanorods,” Phys. Status Solidi8(3–4), 631–634 (2012) (c).

Crawford, M. H.

Cross, K. C.

D’evelyn, M. P.

X. A. Cao, S. F. Leboeuf, M. P. D’evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4313–4315 (2001).

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang,, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

A. R. Madaria, M. Yao, C. Y. Chi, N. Huang, C. Lin, R. Li, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2839–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-21) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrel, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dineen, M.

P. Shields, M. Hugues, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, M. Cooke, M. Dineen, W. Wang, F. Causa, and D. Allsopp, “Fabrication and properties of etched GaN nanorods,” Phys. Status Solidi8(3–4), 631–634 (2012) (c).

Ee, Y. K.

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erenburg, M.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Farrel, R. M.

R. M. Farrel, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fathololoumi, S.

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-21) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Figiel, J. J.

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III–V nitrides: conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi216(1), 391–398 (1999) (b).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuke, S.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

Fündling, S.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Gainer, G. H.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

P. Gibart, “Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67(5), 667–715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. P.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ha, G. Y.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J. H.

Han, D. S.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, R.

X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang,, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent progress in selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of III-nitrides: effects of reactor pressure in MOVPE growth,” Phys. Status Solidi176(1), 535–543 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. K.

T. Wang, J. Bai, S. Sakai, and J. K. Ho, “Investigation of the emission mechanism in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(18), 2617–2619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. Y.

Hsu, C. W.

C. W. Hsu, Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, and Y. F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Photon. Nano. Fund. Appl.10(4), 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. H. Hsueh, M. C. Ou-Yang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of InGaN-based nanorods fabricated by plasma etching with nanoscale nickel metal islands,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(4), 1909–1912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. H.

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. H. Hsueh, M. C. Ou-Yang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of InGaN-based nanorods fabricated by plasma etching with nanoscale nickel metal islands,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(4), 1909–1912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Huang, J. J.

Huang, L. C.

C. H. Chang, L. Y. Chen, L. C. Huang, Y. T. Wang, T. C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of strains and defects on the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, N.

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Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Saijou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi183(1), 41–50 (2001) (a).
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Y. H. Ko, J. H. Kim, L. H. Jin, S. M. Ko, B. J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
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J. M. Lee, C. Huh, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Dry-etch damage and its recovery in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(6), 530–534 (2003).
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Kim, J. B.

Kim, J. H.

Y. H. Ko, J. H. Kim, L. H. Jin, S. M. Ko, B. J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
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Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Y. H. Ko, J. H. Kim, L. H. Jin, S. M. Ko, B. J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. Bardoux, M. Funato, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Complex strain distribution in individual facetted InGaN/GaN nano-columnar heterostructures,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 47–53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Y. H. Ko, J. H. Kim, L. H. Jin, S. M. Ko, B. J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
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Y. H. Ko, J. H. Kim, L. H. Jin, S. M. Ko, B. J. Kwon, J. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. H. Cho, “Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(45), 5364–5369 (2011).
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A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Lee, C. H.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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J. M. Lee, C. Huh, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Dry-etch damage and its recovery in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.18(6), 530–534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
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Li, X. H.

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
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Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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A. R. Madaria, M. Yao, C. Y. Chi, N. Huang, C. Lin, R. Li, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2839–2845 (2012).
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T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
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G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
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H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
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C. H. Chang, L. Y. Chen, L. C. Huang, Y. T. Wang, T. C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of strains and defects on the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(4), 551–556 (2012).
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A. R. Madaria, M. Yao, C. Y. Chi, N. Huang, C. Lin, R. Li, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2839–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, T.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent progress in selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of III-nitrides: effects of reactor pressure in MOVPE growth,” Phys. Status Solidi176(1), 535–543 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Mawst, L. J.

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
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T. F. Kuech and L. J. Mawst, “Nanofabrication of III–V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(18), 183001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Merzsch, S.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Mi, Z.

Min, K. I.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent progress in selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of III-nitrides: effects of reactor pressure in MOVPE growth,” Phys. Status Solidi176(1), 535–543 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Motogaito, A.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent progress in selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of III-nitrides: effects of reactor pressure in MOVPE growth,” Phys. Status Solidi176(1), 535–543 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Saijou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi183(1), 41–50 (2001) (a).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1512–1514 (2006).
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D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-21) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9(4), 190–198 (2013).
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T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–877 (2004).
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Narukawa, Y.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Saijou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi183(1), 41–50 (2001) (a).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Nishiyama, K.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent progress in selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of III-nitrides: effects of reactor pressure in MOVPE growth,” Phys. Status Solidi176(1), 535–543 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Nutt, S. R.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Brien, J. D.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Saijou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi183(1), 41–50 (2001) (a).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Saijou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi183(1), 41–50 (2001) (a).
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H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. H. Hsueh, M. C. Ou-Yang, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of InGaN-based nanorods fabricated by plasma etching with nanoscale nickel metal islands,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B24(4), 1909–1912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. C.

Park, H. H.

Park, H. J.

Park, J. H.

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
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A. Waag, X. Wang, S. Fündling, J. Ledig, M. Erenburg, R. Neumann, M. A. Suleiman, S. Merzsch, J. Wei, S. Li, H. H. Wehmann, W. Bergbauer, M. Straßburg, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and H. Riechert, “The nanorod approach: GaN nanoLEDs for solid state lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi8(7–8), 2296–2301 (2011) (c).

Westlake, K. R.

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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R. M. Farrel, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
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D. Li, M. Sumiya, S. Fuke, D. Yang, D. Que, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Fukuda, “Selective etching of GaN polar surface in potassium hydroxide solution studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4219–4223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

Yang, M. S.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multiquantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010).
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X. A. Cao, S. F. Leboeuf, M. P. D’evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(21), 4313–4315 (2001).

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A. R. Madaria, M. Yao, C. Y. Chi, N. Huang, C. Lin, R. Li, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2839–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
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R. M. Farrel, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
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Yu, P.

Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-dependent strain relaxation and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1226–1233 (2009).
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X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang,, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
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X. H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical gain and laser characteristics of InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 2600111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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X. A. Cao, H. Cho, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang,, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Depth and thermal stability of dry etch damage in GaN schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(2), 232–234 (1999).
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Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
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G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 342 (2011).
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Zhao, H. P.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of fabrication steps used to form InGaN/GaN NRs. (b) SEM images of as-etched NRs and (c) wet-treated NRs after 5 min in KOH solution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional SEM images of InGaN/GaN NR structures with (a) as-etched and KOH treatment after (b) 1 min, (c) 3 min, and (d) 5 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature μ-PL of InGaN/GaN NRs. The short dash line indicates the peak of the parent planar LED structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Arrhenius plot of normalized integrated PL intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Low-temperature (80 K) CL obtained in spot mode on the top of InGaN/GaN NRs. The inset shows the schematic of the NR top.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PL peak wavelength of NRs as a function of temperature.

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