Abstract

A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with high-quality graphene nano-particles uniformly dispersed in the hole cladding are demonstrated to passively mode-lock the erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) by evanescent-wave interaction. The few-layer graphene nano-particles are obtained by a stabilized electrochemical exfoliation at a threshold bias. These slowly and softly exfoliated graphene nano-particle exhibits an intense 2D band and an almost disappeared D band in the Raman scattering spectrum. The saturable phenomena of the extinction coefficient β in the cladding provides a loss modulation for the intracavity photon intensity by the evanescent-wave interaction. The evanescent-wave mode-locking scheme effectively enlarges the interaction length of saturable absorption with graphene nano-particle to provide an increasing transmittance ΔT of 5% and modulation depth of 13%. By comparing the core-wave and evanescent-wave mode-locking under the same linear transmittance, the transmittance of the graphene nano-particles on the end-face of SMF only enlarges from 0.54 to 0.578 with ΔT = 3.8% and the modulation depth of 10.8%. The evanescent wave interaction is found to be better than the traditional approach which confines the graphene nano-particles at the interface of two SMF patchcords. When enlarging the intra-cavity gain by simultaneously increasing the pumping current of 980-nm and 1480-nm pumping laser diodes (LDs) to 900 mA, the passively mode-locked EDFL shortens its pulsewidth to 650 fs and broadens its spectral linewidth to 3.92 nm. An extremely low carrier amplitude jitter (CAJ) of 1.2-1.6% is observed to confirm the stable EDFL pulse-train with the cladding graphene nano-particle based evanescent-wave mode-locking.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled CNT based saturable absorbers for passively mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Z. Q. Luo, J. Z. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y. W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2166–2168 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J.-C. Chiu, C.-M. Chang, B.-Z. Hsieh, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lee, J.-J. Lin, W.-H. Cheng, “Pulse shortening mode-locked fiber laser by thickness and concentration product of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4036–4041 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, X. He, D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, “Deformation immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, R. B. Kaner, “Honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 132–145 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, J. J. Kang, C. K. Lee, “High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9570–9579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

G.-R. Lin, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-S. Liao, H.-H. Lu, “L-band erbium-doped fiber laser with coupling-ratio controlled wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9743–9749 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2166–2168 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
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Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Bower, C.

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
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J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Chang, C.-M.

Chang, J.-Y.

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. R.

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
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Cheng, H. H.

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. N.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled CNT based saturable absorbers for passively mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Cheng, W.-H.

Chi, Y. C.

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, I.-H.

Chiu, J.-C.

Cho, D. K.

Cho, J. H.

H. Kim, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, “Deformation immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

Chundi, V.

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debnath, P.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

Y. C. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, O.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, H.

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
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A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godbout, N.

Grande, L.

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, W.-S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y. P.

Y. C. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

He, X.

Hsieh, B.-Z.

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S. H.

Jalil, R.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, S. Y.

H. Kim, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, “Deformation immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jose, R.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaner, R. B.

M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, R. B. Kaner, “Honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 132–145 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. J.

Kavan, L.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlobystov, A. N.

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, “Deformation immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

Knize, R. J.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kockaert, P.

Koo, J.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. H.

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. K.

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, H. F.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

Li, L. J.

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Li, X. L.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

Liao, Y.-S.

Lim, A.

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, C. T.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-R.

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled CNT based saturable absorbers for passively mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Chiu, C.-M. Chang, B.-Z. Hsieh, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lee, J.-J. Lin, W.-H. Cheng, “Pulse shortening mode-locked fiber laser by thickness and concentration product of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4036–4041 (2011).
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G.-R. Lin, J. J. Kang, C. K. Lee, “High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9570–9579 (2010).
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G.-R. Lin, C. L. Pan, Y. T. Lin, “Self-steepening of prechirped amplified and compressed 29-fs fiber laser pulse in large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3597–3601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-S. Liao, H.-H. Lu, “L-band erbium-doped fiber laser with coupling-ratio controlled wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9743–9749 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, I.-H. Chiu, M. C. Wu, “1.2-ps mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser pulses generated by 60-ps backward dark-optical comb injection and soliton compression,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1008–1014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, I.-H. Chiu, “Femtosecond wavelength tunable semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser mode-locked by backward dark-optical-comb injection at 10 GHz,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8772–8780 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J.-J.

Lin, S. C.

Lin, S.-C.

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled CNT based saturable absorbers for passively mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. T.

Lin, Y.-C.

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

Loh, K. P.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, A. Y.

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, H.-H.

Lu, J.

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y. H.

Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Luo, J. Z. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massar, S.

Maultzsch, J.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, Y. C.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

Y. C. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohr, M.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z. H.

Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, K.

Pan, C. L.

Papagelis, K.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parthenios, J.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ping, L. K.

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polavarapu, L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, W.

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riaz, I.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Ryhänen, T.

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2166–2168 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y. W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, “Deformation immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2166–2168 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, C.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjin, S. C.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsoukleri, G.

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, V. C.

M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, R. B. Kaner, “Honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 132–145 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virally, S.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Wang, J.

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Z.

Z. Q. Luo, J. Z. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Y.

Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, D.

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, R.

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

Xu, B.

Xu, H. Y.

Z. Q. Luo, J. Z. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, S.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-X.

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, C. C.

Z. Q. Luo, J. Z. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yeh, C.-Y.

Yeom, D. I.

Yu, T.

Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S. M.

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, M.

Z. Q. Luo, J. Z. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Su, A. Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F. R. Chen, A. N. Khlobystov, L. J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2332–2339 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, J.-X. Yang, J. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Ni, T. Yu, Y. H. Lu, Y. Y. Wang, Y. P. Feng, Z. X. Shen, “Uniaxial strain on graphene: Raman spectroscopy study and band-gap opening,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2301–2305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frank, M. Mohr, J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, I. Riaz, R. Jalil, K. S. Novoselov, G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, L. Kavan, C. Galiotis, “Raman 2D-band splitting in graphene: theory and experiment,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2231–2239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. Zhao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. H. Cho, S. Y. Jang, Y. W. Song, “Deformation immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

D. Wei, L. Grande, V. Chundi, R. White, C. Bower, P. Andrew, T. Ryhänen, “Graphene from electrochemical exfoliation and its direct applications in enhanced energy storage devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(9), 1239–1241 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, R. B. Kaner, “Honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 132–145 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. J

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, G.-R. Lin, “Harmonic order dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

J. Z. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. P. Cai, H. H. Cheng, H. Y. Xu, W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Phys.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Single- and double-walled CNT based saturable absorbers for passively mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Chi, G.-R. Lin, “Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Luo, J. Z. Wang, M. Zhou, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 229–233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Du, S. M. Zhang, H. F. Li, Y. C. Meng, X. L. Li, Y. P. Hao, “L-Band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012).

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 581–586 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Lin, “Directly exfoliated and imprinted graphite nano-particle saturable absorber for passive mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(12), 880–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 398–404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, “Kelly sideband variation and self four-wave-mixing in femtosecond fiber soliton laser mode-locked by multiple exfoliated graphite nano-particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

G.-R. Lin, I.-H. Chiu, M. C. Wu, “1.2-ps mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser pulses generated by 60-ps backward dark-optical comb injection and soliton compression,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1008–1014 (2005).
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G.-R. Lin, J.-Y. Chang, Y.-S. Liao, H.-H. Lu, “L-band erbium-doped fiber laser with coupling-ratio controlled wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9743–9749 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, J. J. Kang, C. K. Lee, “High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9570–9579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Chiu, C.-M. Chang, B.-Z. Hsieh, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, G.-R. Lin, C.-K. Lee, J.-J. Lin, W.-H. Cheng, “Pulse shortening mode-locked fiber laser by thickness and concentration product of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4036–4041 (2011).
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P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
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S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y. W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
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Y. C. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, Y. P. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The flow chart of electrochemical exfoliation and extraction of graphene nano-particle into the PCF. The inset is the SEM image of graphene nano-particles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup of the passively mode-locked EDFL. Inset: the photographs of the PCF (left: top-view, right: side-view).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of the HOPG foil and the electrochemically exfoliated graphene nano-particles operated under bias voltages of + 6 and + 3V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The schematic diagrams of the electrochemically exfoliated graphene nano-particles with bias voltages of + 6 and + 3V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear transmittance of (a) graphene nano-particles in PCF and (b) graphene nano-particles on the end-face of SMF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nonlinear transmittance and normalized absorbance of (a) graphene nano-particles in PCF and (b) graphene nano-particles on the end-face of SMF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The schematic diagram of evanescent-wave mode-locked pulse propagation through the PCF doped with graphene nano-particles in hole-cladding region.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of evanescent field modulation with varied extinction coefficient.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Pout-Pin curves and (b) the Gain curves of the EDFA under different pumping currents.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) The autocorrelation traces and (b) optical spectra of the passively mode-locked EDFLs under different pumping current.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) The simulated autocorrelation traces and (b) optical spectra of the passively mode-locked EDFLs under different pumping current.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The CAJ values and the oscilloscope traces of the passively mode-locked EDFLs under different pumping currents.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = exp ( q n o n 1 + P i n / P s a t q l i n ) ,
α non,G = α 0,G 1+ I e , t / I e , s a t I e , t = I e , s a t ( α 0,G α non,G 1 )
I e , t = I 0 e 2 β x ,
β = 2 π n c λ ( sin 2 θ i ( n c / n i ) 2 1 ) 1 / 2 = 2 π λ { n i 2 [ n c 0 + n c I e , s a t ( α 0,G α non,G ( I t ) 1 ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,
Γ = 0 d / 2 E c o r e 2 ( x ) d x 0 d / 2 E c o r e 2 ( x ) d x + d / 2 E c l a d d i n g 2 ( x ) d x .
T R T A ( T , t ) = [ G 0 1 + | A | 2 / P G , s a t l + D g 2 t 2 q n o n ( T , t ) 1 + | A | 2 / P s a t i D 2 t 2 + i δ | A | 2 ] A ( T , t ) ,

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