Abstract

We demonstrate four wave mixing (FWM) based wavelength conversion of 40 Gbaud differential phase shift keyed (DPSK) and quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signals in a 2.5 cm long silicon germanium waveguide. For a 290 mW pump power, bit error ratio (BER) measurements show approximately a 2-dB power penalty in both cases of DPSK (measured at a BER of 10−9) and QPSK (at a BER of 10−3) signals that we examined.

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  1. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express11(15), 1731–1739 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. K. Hammani, M. A. Ettabib, A. Bogris, A. Kapsalis, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, D. Richardson and P. Petropoulos, “Linear and nonlinear properties of sige waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” in proceedings of OFC, 17–23 March 2013, Anaheim, JTh2A.34 (2013).
  16. Q. Lin, T. J. Johnson, R. Perahia, C. P. Michael, and O. J. Painter, “A proposal for highly tunable optical parametric oscillation in silicon micro-resonators,” Opt. Express16(14), 10596–10610 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express14(12), 5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express13(12), 4629–4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Claps, R.

Clausen, A.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

Dulkeith, E.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galili, M.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Hvam, J.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Itabashi, S.

Jacome, L.

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express11(15), 1731–1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, P.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Ji, H.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Jie Li,

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koos, C.

Krauss, T. F.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, C. P.

Monat, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mulvad, H.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Oxenlowe, L.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Painter, O. J.

Palushani, E.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

Perahia, R.

Poulton, C.

Pu, M.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

Raghunathan, V.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

Soref, R.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yvind, K.

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Other

L. Oxenlowe, H. Mulvad, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, E. Palushani, and A. Clausen, “Ultrafast nonlinear signal processing in silicon waveguides,” OFC, OTh3H.5 (2012).

M. A. Ettabib, K. Hammani, F. Parmigiani, L. Jones, A. Kapsalis, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti and P. Petropoulos, “FWM-based wavelength conversion in a silicon germanium waveguide,” in proceedings of OFC, 17–23 March 2013, Anaheim, OTh1C.4 (2013).

K. Hammani, M. A. Ettabib, A. Bogris, A. Kapsalis, D. Syvridis, M. Brun, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, D. Richardson and P. Petropoulos, “Linear and nonlinear properties of sige waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” in proceedings of OFC, 17–23 March 2013, Anaheim, JTh2A.34 (2013).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

1µm wide SiGe strip waveguide before (a) and after (b) encapsulation in a 12µm Si cladding layer. The total device length of 2.5 cm includes a 0.5 mm taper at its entrance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field profiles of the TE (left, neff = 3.5238) and TM (right, neff = 3.52422) fundamental modes for waveguide width 1μm height 1.4μm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dispersion curves for the structure under investigation and effective mode areas as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top: Experimental set-up used to characterize the wavelength converter. Bottom: spectral trace of FWM measured at the output of the waveguide (left); and numerical calculation (line) and experimental measurement (circles) of FWM conversion efficiency versus wavelength detuning (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polar plot of the conversion efficiency dependence on the angle of polarization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Constellation diagrams for the original 40 Gbit/s DPSK signal (left) and idler (right) (b) BER curves and eye diagrams for the B2B (square) and the idler (circle).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Constellation diagrams for the 80 Gbit/s QPSK B2B signal (left) and idler (right) (b) BER curves for the B2B signal (circle) and the idler (diamond).

Equations (1)

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A s z ={ i( β s + β s f ) α s 2 } A s + i( γ s P s +2 γ sp P p +2 γ si P i ) A s +i γ spip A i * A p 2

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