Abstract

Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorods (NRs) and nanowhiskers (NWhs) were fabricated by an electron-beam glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) system. These nanomaterials are of interests as transparent conducting electrodes in various devices. Two terahertz (THz) time-domain spectrometers (TDS) with combined spectral coverage from 0.15 to 9.00 THz were used. These allow accurate determination of the optical and electrical properties of such ITO nanomaterials in the frequency range from 0.20 to 4.00 THz. Together with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements, we found that the THz and far-infrared transmittance of these nanomaterials can be as high as 70% up to 15 THz, as opposed to about 9% for sputtered ITO thin films. The complex conductivities of ITO NRs, NWhs as well films are well fitted by the Drude-Smith model. Taking into account that the volume filling factors of both type of nanomaterials are nearly same, mobilities, and DC conductivities of ITO NWhs are higher than those of NRs due to less severe carrier localization effects in the former. On the other hand, mobilities of sputtered ITO thin films are poorer than ITO nanomaterials because of larger concentration of dopant ions in films, which causes stronger carrier scattering. We note further that consideration of the extreme values of Re{σ} and Im{σ} as well the inflection points, which are functions of the carrier scattering time (τ) and the expectation value of cosine of the scattering angle (γ), provide additional criteria for accessing the accuracy of the extraction of electrical parameters of non-Drude-like materials using THz-TDS. Our studies so far indicate ITO NWhs with heights of ~1000 nm show outstanding transmittance and good electrical characteristics for applications such as transparent conducting electrodes of THz Devices.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

2012 (8)

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Tsokkou, A. Othonos, and M. Zervos, “Carrier dynamics and conductivity of SnO2 nanowires investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 133101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Indium tin oxide subwavelength nanostructures with surface antireflection and superhydrophilicity for high-efficiency Si-based thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S3), A431–A440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-J. Seo, J.-P. Shim, S.-B. Choi, T. H. Seo, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Efficiency improvement in InGaN-based solar cell s by indium tin oxide nano dots covered with ITO films,” Opt. Express20(S6), A991–A996 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Vieweg, B. M. Fischer, M. Reuter, P. Kula, R. Dabrowski, M. A. Celik, G. Frenking, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal,” Opt. Express20(27), 28249–28256 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (12)

C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, P. Yu, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, and W.-C. Hsu, “Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A219–A224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Glancing angle deposited ITO films for efficiency enhancement of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A258–A268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Clough, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, ““All air-plasma” terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2399–2401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Liu, C.-C. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsu, J.-K. Liou, T.-Y. Tsai, and W.-C. Liu, “Implementation of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct-Ohmic contact structure on a GaN-based light emitting diode,” Opt. Express19(15), 14662–14670 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Liu, Y.-C. Lin, J.-C. Ye, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and J. K. Sheu, “Hydrogen gas generation using n-GaN photoelectrodes with immersed Indium Tin oxide Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express19(S6Suppl 6), A1196–A1201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee and N. Y. Ha, “Nanostructured indium-tin-oxide films fabricated by all-solution processing for functional transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express19(22), 21803–21808 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, A. H. Park, C.-H. Hong, E.-K. Suh, S. J. Chae, Y. H. Lee, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, E. J. Kim, and S.-R. Jeon, “Enhanced light output power of near UV light emitting diodes with graphene / indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode,” Opt. Express19(23), 23111–23117 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ö. Şenlik, H. Y. Cheong, and T. Yoshie, “Design of subwavelength-size, indium tin oxide (ITO)-clad optical disk cavities with quality-factors exceeding 10⁴,” Opt. Express19(23), 23469–23474 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, C.-S. Yang, S.-H. Lin, S.-H. Huang, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Effects of two-photon absorption on terahertz radiation generated by femtosecond-laser excited photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express19(24), 23689–23697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Titova, T. L. Cocker, D. G. Cooke, X. Wang, A. Meldrum, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast percolative transport dynamics in silicon nanocrystal films,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 085403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

I.-C. Ho, X. Guo, and X.-C. Zhang, “Design and performance of reflective terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(3), 2872–2883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Yang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, C. T. Que, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and C.-L. Pan, “The complex refractive indices of the liquid crystal mixture E7 in the terahertz frequency range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(9), 1866–1873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, M.-S. Su, M.-H. Hsu, and K.-H. Wei, “Embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes for efficiency and lifetime enhancement of polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 153307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, and C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and electric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, P. Yu, and C. S. Yang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection from conductive indium-tin-oxide nanocolumns prepared by glancing-angle deposition with nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Němec, P. Kužel, and V. Sundström, “Far-infrared response of free charge carriers localized in semiconductor nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79(11), 115309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry-Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, “Optical modulation of terahertz pulses in a parallel plate waveguide,” Opt. Express16(19), 15123–15129 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

J. B. Baxter and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(50), 25229–25239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

Q. Wan, Z. T. Song, S. L. Feng, and T. H. Wang, “Single-crystalline tin-doped indium oxide whiskers: synthesis and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4759–4761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. M. Turner, M. C. Beard, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Carrier localization and cooling in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(45), 11716–11719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. V. Smith, “Classical generalization of the Drude formula for the optical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1982 (1)

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(5), 362–364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, J. B.

J. B. Baxter and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(50), 25229–25239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

G. M. Turner, M. C. Beard, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Carrier localization and cooling in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(45), 11716–11719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Celik, M. A.

Chae, S. J.

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chang, P. Yu, and C. S. Yang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection from conductive indium-tin-oxide nanocolumns prepared by glancing-angle deposition with nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

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C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
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P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, M.-S. Su, M.-H. Hsu, and K.-H. Wei, “Embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes for efficiency and lifetime enhancement of polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 153307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, and C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and electric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
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C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
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C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, and C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and electric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
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J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
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Chen, X. D.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
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J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
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Chiu, C.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
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S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
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S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
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Dindar, A.

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
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Fan, H. J.

X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
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J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
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P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
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G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
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Hegmann, F. A.

L. V. Titova, T. L. Cocker, D. G. Cooke, X. Wang, A. Meldrum, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast percolative transport dynamics in silicon nanocrystal films,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 085403 (2011).
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S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry-Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
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P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
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I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(5), 362–364 (1982).
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Hong, C.-H.

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Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Hsu, C.-S.

Hsu, M. H.

Hsu, M.-H.

C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, P. Yu, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, and W.-C. Hsu, “Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A219–A224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, M.-S. Su, M.-H. Hsu, and K.-H. Wei, “Embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes for efficiency and lifetime enhancement of polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 153307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-H.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W.-C.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, P. Yu, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, and W.-C. Hsu, “Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A219–A224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-C.

Huang, F. W.

Huang, S.-H.

Hwang, D. K.

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry-Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

James, L.-H.

P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Jepsen, P. U.

Jewell, S. A.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry-Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Kim, E. J.

Kippelen, B.

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
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Kolb, J. S.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
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Kula, P.

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P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
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X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Lee, K. J.

Lee, M. L.

Lee, S. H.

Lee, Y. H.

Leem, J. W.

Li, D.

G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. H.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Lin, J.-J.

S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, M.-H.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Lin, Y.-C.

S.-Y. Liu, Y.-C. Lin, J.-C. Ye, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and J. K. Sheu, “Hydrogen gas generation using n-GaN photoelectrodes with immersed Indium Tin oxide Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express19(S6Suppl 6), A1196–A1201 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Liu, J.

Liu, S.-Y.

Liu, W.-C.

Liu, Y.-J.

Löffler, T.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. C.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. V. Titova, T. L. Cocker, D. G. Cooke, X. Wang, A. Meldrum, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast percolative transport dynamics in silicon nanocrystal films,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 085403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

Mohler, E.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
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Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, S. K.

X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nee, C. H.

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemec, H.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, and V. Sundström, “Far-infrared response of free charge carriers localized in semiconductor nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79(11), 115309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nienhuys, H.-K.

H.-K. Nienhuys and V. Sundström, “Influence of plasmons on terahertz conductivity measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 02101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

D. Tsokkou, A. Othonos, and M. Zervos, “Carrier dynamics and conductivity of SnO2 nanowires investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 133101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-L.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, C.-S. Yang, S.-H. Lin, S.-H. Huang, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Effects of two-photon absorption on terahertz radiation generated by femtosecond-laser excited photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express19(24), 23689–23697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Yang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, C. T. Que, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and C.-L. Pan, “The complex refractive indices of the liquid crystal mixture E7 in the terahertz frequency range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(9), 1866–1873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, and C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and electric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, R.-P. Pan, M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Control of enhanced THz transmission through metallic hole arrays using nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express13(11), 3921–3930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, R.-P.

Park, A. H.

Parkinson, P.

P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pernisz, U. C.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pham, V. H.

Que, C. T.

Reuter, M.

Roskos, H. G.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sáfrán, G.

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry-Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

J. B. Baxter and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(50), 25229–25239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, M. C. Beard, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Carrier localization and cooling in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(45), 11716–11719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Senlik, Ö.

Seo, D.-J.

Seo, T. H.

Shen, C.-H.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

Shen, J.

G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Shieh, J.-M.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, and C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and electric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. W.

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.-P.

Smith, N. V.

N. V. Smith, “Classical generalization of the Drude formula for the optical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z. T.

Q. Wan, Z. T. Song, S. L. Feng, and T. H. Wang, “Single-crystalline tin-doped indium oxide whiskers: synthesis and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4759–4761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Springer, D.

X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, M.-S.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, M.-S. Su, M.-H. Hsu, and K.-H. Wei, “Embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes for efficiency and lifetime enhancement of polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 153307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E.-K.

Sun, H. D.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.-C.

C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, P. Yu, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, and W.-C. Hsu, “Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A219–A224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundström, V.

H. Němec, P. Kužel, and V. Sundström, “Far-infrared response of free charge carriers localized in semiconductor nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79(11), 115309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Nienhuys and V. Sundström, “Influence of plasmons on terahertz conductivity measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 02101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. S.

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

Tani, M.

Titova, L. V.

L. V. Titova, T. L. Cocker, D. G. Cooke, X. Wang, A. Meldrum, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast percolative transport dynamics in silicon nanocrystal films,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 085403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tou, T. Y.

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. A.

Tsai, T.-Y.

Tseng, P.-C.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, P. Yu, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, and W.-C. Hsu, “Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A219–A224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsokkou, D.

D. Tsokkou, A. Othonos, and M. Zervos, “Carrier dynamics and conductivity of SnO2 nanowires investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 133101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

Turner, G. M.

G. M. Turner, M. C. Beard, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Carrier localization and cooling in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(45), 11716–11719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

Vieweg, N.

Wada, O.

Wan, Q.

Q. Wan, Z. T. Song, S. L. Feng, and T. H. Wang, “Single-crystalline tin-doped indium oxide whiskers: synthesis and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4759–4761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. H.

Q. Wan, Z. T. Song, S. L. Feng, and T. H. Wang, “Single-crystalline tin-doped indium oxide whiskers: synthesis and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4759–4761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

L. V. Titova, T. L. Cocker, D. G. Cooke, X. Wang, A. Meldrum, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast percolative transport dynamics in silicon nanocrystal films,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 085403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, K.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, M.-S. Su, M.-H. Hsu, and K.-H. Wei, “Embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes for efficiency and lifetime enhancement of polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 153307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Q. H.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, K.

Yang, C. S.

C. H. Chang, P. Yu, and C. S. Yang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection from conductive indium-tin-oxide nanocolumns prepared by glancing-angle deposition with nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.-S.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, C.-S. Yang, S.-H. Lin, S.-H. Huang, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Effects of two-photon absorption on terahertz radiation generated by femtosecond-laser excited photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express19(24), 23689–23697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Yang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, C. T. Que, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and C.-L. Pan, “The complex refractive indices of the liquid crystal mixture E7 in the terahertz frequency range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(9), 1866–1873 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yap, S. S.

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yap, Y. K.

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.-C.

Yong, T. K.

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

Yu, J. S.

Yu, J.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, P. Yu, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, and W.-C. Hsu, “Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A219–A224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Combined micro- and nano-scale surface textures for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting in silicon photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology22(9), 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, M.-S. Su, M.-H. Hsu, and K.-H. Wei, “Embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes for efficiency and lifetime enhancement of polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 153307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, and C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and electric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, P. Yu, and C. S. Yang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection from conductive indium-tin-oxide nanocolumns prepared by glancing-angle deposition with nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zervos, M.

D. Tsokkou, A. Othonos, and M. Zervos, “Carrier dynamics and conductivity of SnO2 nanowires investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 133101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhou, Y. H.

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater.21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, M.-S. Su, M.-H. Hsu, and K.-H. Wei, “Embedded indium-tin-oxide nanoelectrodes for efficiency and lifetime enhancement of polymer-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 153307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Tsokkou, A. Othonos, and M. Zervos, “Carrier dynamics and conductivity of SnO2 nanowires investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 133101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, P. Yu, and C. S. Yang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection from conductive indium-tin-oxide nanocolumns prepared by glancing-angle deposition with nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(5), 362–364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wan, Z. T. Song, S. L. Feng, and T. H. Wang, “Single-crystalline tin-doped indium oxide whiskers: synthesis and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4759–4761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Shim, H. Cheun, J. Meyer, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, A. Dindar, Y. H. Zhou, D. K. Hwang, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified indium tin oxide as an electron-collecting electrode for inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 073303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Ma, D. Li, H. Ma, J. Shen, C. Wu, J. Ge, S. Hu, and N. Dai, “Carrier concentration dependence of terahertz transmission on conducting ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Nienhuys and V. Sundström, “Influence of plasmons on terahertz conductivity measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 02101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Non-Drude behavior in indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers and thin films by transmission and reflection THz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., accepted (2013).

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, and C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-dependent complex conductivities and electric responses of indium tin oxide thin films from the visible to the far-infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Löffler, E. Mohler, U. C. Pernisz, and H. G. Roskos, “Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys.92(4), 2210–2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

J. B. Baxter and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(50), 25229–25239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, M. C. Beard, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Carrier localization and cooling in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(45), 11716–11719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Zou, J. Luo, D. Lee, C. Cheng, D. Springer, S. K. Nair, S. A. Cheong, H. J. Fan, and E. E. M. Chia, “Temperature-dependent terahertz conductivity of tin oxide nanowire films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(46), 465101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Parkinson, L.-H. James, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Transient terahertz conductivity of GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett.7(7), 2162–2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (4)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Kee, S. S. Tan, T. K. Yong, C. H. Nee, S. S. Yap, T. Y. Tou, G. Sáfrán, Z. E. Horváth, J. P. Moscatello, and Y. K. Yap, “Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices,” Nanotechnology23(2), 025706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Chiu, H.-F. Chung, Y.-H. Lin, J.-J. Kai, F.-R. Chen, and J.-J. Lin, “Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K,” Nanotechnology20(10), 105203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gao, R. Chen, D. H. Li, L. Jiang, J. C. Ye, X. C. Ma, X. D. Chen, Q. H. Xiong, H. D. Sun, and T. Wu, “UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(19), 195706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry-Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (17)

C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, R.-P. Pan, M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Control of enhanced THz transmission through metallic hole arrays using nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express13(11), 3921–3930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, P. Yu, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, and W.-C. Hsu, “Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A219–A224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Glancing angle deposited ITO films for efficiency enhancement of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A258–A268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Metallic wave-impedance matching layers for broadband terahertz optical systems,” Opt. Express15(11), 6552–6560 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, “Optical modulation of terahertz pulses in a parallel plate waveguide,” Opt. Express16(19), 15123–15129 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, “Oblique electron-beam evaporation of distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanorods for enhanced light extraction from InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express17(23), 21250–21256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-C. Ho, X. Guo, and X.-C. Zhang, “Design and performance of reflective terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(3), 2872–2883 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Liu, C.-C. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsu, J.-K. Liou, T.-Y. Tsai, and W.-C. Liu, “Implementation of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct-Ohmic contact structure on a GaN-based light emitting diode,” Opt. Express19(15), 14662–14670 (2011).
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S. H. Lee and N. Y. Ha, “Nanostructured indium-tin-oxide films fabricated by all-solution processing for functional transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express19(22), 21803–21808 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C.-K. Lee, C.-S. Yang, S.-H. Lin, S.-H. Huang, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, “Effects of two-photon absorption on terahertz radiation generated by femtosecond-laser excited photoconductive antennas,” Opt. Express19(24), 23689–23697 (2011).
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J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Indium tin oxide subwavelength nanostructures with surface antireflection and superhydrophilicity for high-efficiency Si-based thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S3), A431–A440 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Ederth, “Electrical transport in nanoparticle thin films off gold and indium tin oxide,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mat. Science, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala, Sweden, (2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the ITO nanomaterials fabricated by the electron-beam GLAD system: (a) short NRs, (c) long NRs, (e) short NWhs, and (g) long NWhs. The corresponding cross-sectional SEM images of these samples are shown in (b), (d), (f) and (h). Cartoons of the nanomaterials and their estimated heights are also indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup for the THz-TDS based on laser-induced gaseous plasma. The THz field is generated by dual-color (800-nm and 400-nm) femtosecond pulses from an amplified Ti:Sapphire laser in the gaseous plasma. Terahertz pulses are detected with EO sampling with a GaP crystal. (b) Typical performance of the THz-TDS systems based on laser-induced gaseous plasma (blue solid line), and PC antenna (red dash line), respectively, are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transmittance of ITO nanomaterials and thin films are plotted as a function of frequency. The red circles, green squares, black stars, blue triangles, orange hexagon, and olive inverted triangles are experimental data from THz-TDS measurements. The red-dash, green-dot, black-dash dot, blue-solid, orange-dash dot, and olive-short dash curves are experimental data from FTIR measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Real refractive indices, (b) extinction coefficients of ITO nanomaterials and thin films are plotted as a function of frequency. The black-solid line with circles, blue-dash line with squares, red-dash dot line with diamonds, green-dot line with triangles, cyan-short dash line with stars, and olive-short dash dot line with pentagons correspond to the optical constants for short NRs, long NRs, short NWhs, long NWhs, thin film 345 nm, and thin film 1062 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Re{σ}, (b) Im{σ} of ITO nanomaterials and thin films are plotted as a function of frequency. The black circles, blue squares, red diamonds, green triangles, cyan stars, and olive pentagons are experimental data. The black-solid line, blue-dash line, red-dash dot line, green-dot line, cyan-short dash line, and olive-short dash dot line are fitting curves based on the Drude-Smith model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fitting curves of THz complex conductivities of (a) short NRs, (b) long NRs, (c) short NWhs, (d) long NWhs, (e) 345-nm-thick sputtered film, and (f) 1062-nm-thick sputtered film using experimental data from the PC-antenna-based system only (0.15~1.4 THz, yellow region), and 0.15~4.0 THz (both THz-TDS systems). The black solid line, red dash line, blue dot line, and green dash dot line are fitting curves of Re{σ} as measured by the PC-antenna-based system only, Im{σ} as measured by the PC-antenna-based system only, Re{σ} as measured by both THz-TDS systems, and Im{σ} as measured by both THz-TDS, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition conditions for ITO nanomaterials by the electron-beam GLAD system

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Table 2 Extracted parameters of ITO nanomaterials and thin films based on the Drude-Smith Model

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Table 3 Characteristic values of complex conductivities of ITO nanomaterials and thin films measured by broadband THz-TDS

Equations (2)

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T Sam * ( ω )= E Sam * ( ω ) E Ref * ( ω ) = t 12 t 23 exp[ i( n 2 1 )dω/c ] t 13 [ 1 r 21 r 23 exp( i2 n 2 dω/c ) ]exp[ i( n 3 1 )Δdω/c ] .
σ * ( ω )= ε 0 ω p 2 τ 1iωτ ( 1+ γ 1iωτ ).

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