Abstract

We measure the electric field of a train of modelocked pulses from a quantum cascade laser in the time-domain by electro-optic sampling. The method relies on synchronizing the modelocked pulses to a reference laser and is applied to 15-ps pulses generated by a 2-THz quantum cascade laser. The pulses from the actively modelocked laser are completely characterized in field and in time with a sub-ps resolution, allowing us to determine the amplitude and phase of each cavity mode. The technique can also give access to the carrier-envelope phase of each pulse.

© 2013 OSA

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  8. G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express20, 16662–16670 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kartner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express17, 12929–12943 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. R. Freeman, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Improved wall-plug efficiency of a 1.9THz quantum cascade laser by an automated design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 191119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35ghz using rf amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with gase electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kartner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express17, 12929–12943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1, 308–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Freeman, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Improved wall-plug efficiency of a 1.9THz quantum cascade laser by an automated design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 191119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Devenson, R. Teissier, O. Cathabard, and A. N. Baranov, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting below 3μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 111118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with gase electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baranov, A. N.

J. Devenson, R. Teissier, O. Cathabard, and A. N. Baranov, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting below 3μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 111118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35ghz using rf amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Improved wall-plug efficiency of a 1.9THz quantum cascade laser by an automated design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 191119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

Belyanin, A.

Bonetti, Y.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Cathabard, O.

J. Devenson, R. Teissier, O. Cathabard, and A. N. Baranov, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting below 3μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 111118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cavalie, P.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cavalié, P.

Davies, A.

Davies, A. G.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35ghz using rf amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, P.

Devenson, J.

J. Devenson, R. Teissier, O. Cathabard, and A. N. Baranov, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting below 3μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 111118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S.

Dhillon, S. S.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

Dorrer, C.

Faist, J.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Filloux, P.

Fischer, M.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J. R.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. Khanna, E. Linfield, A. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Freeman, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Improved wall-plug efficiency of a 1.9THz quantum cascade laser by an automated design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 191119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35ghz using rf amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gini, E.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gkortsas, V. M.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, P.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haffouz, S.

Ham, D.

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with gase electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hugi, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

Ibrahim, M. S. M.

Jukam, N.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. Khanna, E. Linfield, A. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

Khanna, S.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. Khanna, E. Linfield, A. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, S. P.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubler, C.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with gase electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsova, L.

Lampin, J.-F.

Lee, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer, New York, 2009).

Leitenstorfer, A.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with gase electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Linfield, E.

Linfield, E. H.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35ghz using rf amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Madeo, J.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madéo, J.

Mangeney, J.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35ghz using rf amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcadet, X.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, O. P.

J. R. Freeman, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Improved wall-plug efficiency of a 1.9THz quantum cascade laser by an automated design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 191119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maussang, K.

Maysonnave, J.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. Khanna, E. Linfield, A. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oustinov, D.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paiella, R.

R. Paiella, Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Structures (McGraw-Hill, 2006).

Ravaro, M.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

Ritchie, D. A.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Improved wall-plug efficiency of a 1.9THz quantum cascade laser by an automated design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 191119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rungsawang, R.

Sagnes, I.

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science books, 1989).

Sirtori, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35ghz using rf amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C. Y.

Steenson, D. P.

Teissier, R.

J. Devenson, R. Teissier, O. Cathabard, and A. N. Baranov, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting below 3μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 111118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tignon, J.

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express20, 16662–16670 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, R. Rungsawang, S. Khanna, E. Linfield, A. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization,” Opt. Express20, 20855–20862 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Springer, 2002).

Tubel, S.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with gase electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I.

Walmsley, I. A.

Walther, C.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Wittmann, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Devenson, R. Teissier, O. Cathabard, and A. N. Baranov, “InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting below 3μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 111118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, P. Cavalie, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, J. Mangeney, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Direct intensity sampling of a modelocked terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 181115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Freeman, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Improved wall-plug efficiency of a 1.9THz quantum cascade laser by an automated design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 191119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with gase electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser and Photonics Review (1)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser and Photonics Review3, 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun.1, 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photon.5, 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. R. Freeman, J. Maysonnave, S. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Laser-seeding dynamics with few-cycle pulses: Maxwell-bloch finite-difference time-domain simulations of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. A87, 063817 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer, New York, 2009).

R. Paiella, Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Structures (McGraw-Hill, 2006).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science books, 1989).

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Springer, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for electric field measurement of modelocked pulses. The nanosecond pulse generator comprises an Agilent 81160A 500-MHz function generator and a broadband (6 GHz bandwidth) high power amplifier. The labels indicate: PA - Photoconductive antenna, PD - fast photodiode, PO- polarizer, EO - electro-optic crystal (1 mm ZnTe), WP - quarter-wave plate, WP - Wollaston prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The electric field measured from the QCL when biased just above threshold and no modulation is applied, (b) the corresponding FFT. The mode spacing of 13.01 GHz for the 3-mm device implies a refractive index of 3.84. (c) The same bias point when a 21-dBm modulation at 13.00 GHz is applied to the cavity and (d) the corresponding FFT. The seed arrives at 0 ps, the same moment the laser is switched on with the gain-switching pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A pulse centered at 1983 ps (normalized to zero), data in black points, the fit is shown in red. (b) Zoom of the same pulse between −24 and −19 ps together with the component modes (c) Zoom between −2 and 3 ps together with the component modes, shown that the modes add constructively. The dashed line indicates the envelope maximum as t=0 ps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Electric field measured from the modelocked QCL, showing a train of 25 pulses. The average pulse width (intensity) is 15 ps (equivalent to around 29 electric field cycles). (b) Results from fitting each pulse, the phases of the six most intense modes are show. (c) The amplitude and phase found from taking the FFT of each pulse. The amplitude (black squares) is fitted with a Gaussian curve (red). The phase (pink circles) found from the FFT is plotted together with the average phases found for each mode from the fitting (colored diamonds).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The modelocked pulse trains for applied RT modulation 12.54 GHz. The dashed lines mark the first and fourth pulses in to aid the comparison. (b) Corresponding data for an applied frequency of 13.30 GHz. Note that the direction of the asymmetry changes if the applied frequency is above or below the resonance. (c) The measured modelocked pulse repetition rate as a function of applied modulation frequency. The solid red line is the case for νapplied = νmeasured. The dashed black line indicates the RT frequency when no modulation is applied.

Equations (1)

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f ( t ) = n a n cos ( 2 π ν n ( t t p ) + ϕ n ) .

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