Abstract

A scalable and tolerant optical interfacing method based on flip-chip bonding is developed for silicon photonics packaging. Bidirectional optical couplers between multiple silicon-on-insulator waveguides and single-mode polymer waveguides are designed and fabricated. Successful operation is verified experimentally in the 1530-1570 nm spectral window. At the wavelength of 1570 nm, the coupling loss is as low as 0.8 dB for both polarization states and the planar misalignment loss is less than 0.6 dB for TE and 0.3 dB for TM polarization in a lateral silicon-polymer waveguide offset range of ± 2 µm. The coupling loss does not exhibit any temperature dependence up to the highest measurement point of 70°C.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 448–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. Shu, C. Qiu, X. Zhang, and Q. Xu, “Efficient coupler between chip-level and board-level optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3614–3616 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Coteus, J. U. Knickerbocker, C. H. Lam, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Technologies for exascale systems,” IBM J. Res. Develop.55(5), 141–1412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Khilo, M. A. Popović, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient planar fiber-to-chip coupler based on two-stage adiabatic evolution,” Opt. Express18(15), 15790–15806 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-15-15790 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

X. Sun, H.-C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, Z. Ren, Y. Shu, and S. Yu, “Angle-facet spot-size-converter integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers using asymmetric twin waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv and X. Sun, “Supermode Si/III-V hybrid lasers, optical amplifiers and modulators: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Express15(15), 9147–9151 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-15-9147 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express14(24), 11622–11630 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=119162 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguide (ATG) technology: part II - devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248-nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fibre-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett.28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Araghchini, M.

Arndt-Staufenbiel, N.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bakir, B. B.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ben Bakir, B.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernabé, S.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248-nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Braeuer, A.

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, H.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fibre-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett.28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, H. J.

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buestrich, R.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carenco, A.

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coteus, P. W.

P. W. Coteus, J. U. Knickerbocker, C. H. Lam, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Technologies for exascale systems,” IBM J. Res. Develop.55(5), 141–1412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, T.

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248-nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feuillade, M.

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguide (ATG) technology: part II - devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Froehlich, L.

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, L.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmur, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gokhale, M. R.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L.

L. Hou, Z. Ren, Y. Shu, and S. Yu, “Angle-facet spot-size-converter integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers using asymmetric twin waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Houbertz, R.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Ikedo, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kahlenberg, F.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kamei, T.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kash, J.

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

Knickerbocker, J. U.

P. W. Coteus, J. U. Knickerbocker, C. H. Lam, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Technologies for exascale systems,” IBM J. Res. Develop.55(5), 141–1412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, A.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fibre-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett.28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. H.

P. W. Coteus, J. U. Knickerbocker, C. H. Lam, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Technologies for exascale systems,” IBM J. Res. Develop.55(5), 141–1412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, T.

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lang, G.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Libsch, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Lin, W.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, H.-C.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manako, S.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Meier, N.

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menon, V. M.

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguide (ATG) technology: part II - devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mersali, B.

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

Morf, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Fiedler, R.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Nicole, P.

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oggioni, S.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, A.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olzhausen, H.

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fibre-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett.28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Omoda, E.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ougazzaden, A.

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pepeljugoski, P.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

Porte, H.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Porzier, C.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D.

Qiu, C.

Ren, Z.

L. Hou, Z. Ren, Y. Shu, and S. Yu, “Angle-facet spot-size-converter integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers using asymmetric twin waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, M.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express14(24), 11622–11630 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=119162 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248-nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roman, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rösch, O.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sainson, S.

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schrank, F.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, H.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shu, J.

Shu, Y.

L. Hou, Z. Ren, Y. Shu, and S. Yu, “Angle-facet spot-size-converter integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers using asymmetric twin waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spreafico, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Streppel, U.

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Studenkov, P. V.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Sure, A.

Suzuki, M.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Takei, R.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taubenblatt, M. A.

Tekin, T.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, J. K.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. S.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uhlig, S.

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express14(24), 11622–11630 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=119162 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248-nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasquez de Gyves, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Waechter, C.

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguide (ATG) technology: part II - devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xing, B.

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yoda, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

L. Hou, Z. Ren, Y. Shu, and S. Yu, “Angle-facet spot-size-converter integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers using asymmetric twin waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fibre-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett.28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

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C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express5(5), 052202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Zengerle, H. Bruckner, H. Olzhausen, and A. Kohl, “Low-loss fibre-chip coupling by buried laterally tapered InP/InGaAsP waveguide structure,” Electron. Lett.28(7), 631–632 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

P. W. Coteus, J. U. Knickerbocker, C. H. Lam, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Technologies for exascale systems,” IBM J. Res. Develop.55(5), 141–1412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguide (ATG) technology: part II - devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

L. Hou, Z. Ren, Y. Shu, and S. Yu, “Angle-facet spot-size-converter integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers using asymmetric twin waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vasquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (<1dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248-nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, and S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (3)

S. Uhlig, L. Fröhlich, M. Chen, N. Arndt-Staufenbiel, G. Lang, H. Schröder, R. Houbertz, M. Popall, and M. Robertsson, “Polymer optical interconnects – a scalable large-area panel processing approach,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.29(1), 158–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

B. Mersali, H. J. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, “Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization insensitive optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(9), 1865–1872 (1995).
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M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 448–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Fan, B. Xing, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Fabrication and optical optimization of spot-size converters with strong cladding layers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(8), 085002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, “ORMOCER®s for optical interconnection technology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.20(2), 181–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. J. Offrein, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, R. Budd, F. Libsch, and J. Kash, “Parallel optical interconnects in printed circuit boards,” Proc. SPIE5990, 59900E, 59900E-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

U. Streppel, P. Dannberg, C. Waechter, A. Braeuer, P. Nicole, L. Froehlich, R. Houbertz, and M. Popall, “Development of a new fabrication method for stacked optical waveguides using inorganic-organic copolymers,” in First Int. IEEE Conf. on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Potsdam, Germany, 2001, pp. 329–335.
[CrossRef]

F. Horst, “Combining Si-photonics and optical PCB’s,” LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, 2009. LEOS '09. IEEE, pp.14–15, 4–8 Oct. 2009.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, Third Edition (Wiley, 1989), Chap. 22.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983), Chap. 19, 28.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Envisioned packaging concept that includes photonic chips connected to the optical printed circuit board (PCB) and the optical backplane through optical waveguides on the chip carrier. The figure is not to scale. The optical coupling mechanism between the chip and the carrier, between the carrier and the PCB and between the PCB and the backplane are not shown in the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic cross section of the flip-chip-bonded silicon photonics assembly. (b) Simplified top view of the SOI and polymer waveguide cores in a coupler. The figures are not to scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Refractive index distribution used for the supermode calculation, where the width of the SOI core (pink rectangle) varies. TE-polarized even supermode of the SOI-polymer waveguide system in the case of an SOI core width of (b) 425 nm, (c) 185 nm, (d) 150 nm, and (e) 75 nm. For comparison, the fundamental TE mode profiles of the (f) SOI waveguide alone, and (g) polymer waveguide alone are also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Layouts of the SOI (red) and polymer (blue) waveguides used for the characterization of the couplers (Ref: reference). The figure is not to scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Process flow of the lower cladding and core layers of the polymer waveguides.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Top view microscope image of an array of straight polymer waveguides that have a pitch of 100 µm. (b) Dark-field microscope image of an array of SOI waveguides.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Microscope image of the cross section of the assembly after underfilling and wafer saw dicing. (b) Microscope image of the cross section of a polymer waveguide under illumination from the back side.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Loss per coupler vs offset between SOI and polymer waveguides at the wavelength of (a) 1530 nm, (b) 1550 nm, and (c) 1570 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized loss per coupler as a function of temperature in the case of a one-segment and three-segment taper. The data corresponds to 1550 nm wavelength and TM polarization.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Components of the fiber-to-fiber loss in the input-to-cross and reference channels of Sample 1 and Sample 2 (numbers in parentheses are the lengths of the waveguides under the assumption that half of the taper contributes to the SOI waveguide length and the other half contributes to the polymer waveguide length)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Lowest coupling loss and the highest misalignment loss within an offset range of ± 2 µm in the case of the three-segment taper

Tables Icon

Table 3 Lowest coupling loss and the highest misalignment loss within an offset range of ± 2 µm in the case of the one-segment taper

Equations (1)

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α coupl (dB)= α ic (dB) α ref (dB) α SOIexc (dB) 2 ,

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