Abstract

Dark surface waves with photorefractive diffusion and photovoltaic nonlinearities are predicted for the first time. We find it is extraordinary that this type of dark surface waves should be in self-focusing media, which is very different from the surface dark solitons or other nonlinear dark surface waves. An oscillator model is proposed by which the above extraordinary phenomenon is demonstrated. In this model an equivalent force function is established, whose form determines the varieties of surface waves (bright surface waves, dark surface waves or others).

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1605–1607 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, “Nonlinear wave propagation in planar structures,” P. Prog. Opt.27, 229–313 (1989).
  3. P. Varatharajah, A. Aceves, J. V. Moloney, D. R. Heatley, and E. M. Wright, “Stationary nonlinear surface waves and their stability in diffusive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett.13(8), 690–692 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).
  5. M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2075–2077 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, “Diffraction-free planar beams in unbiased photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.21(18), 1460–1462 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3298–3300 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Safioui, E. Fazio, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Surface-wave pyroelectric photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1254–1256 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. C. Valley, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A50(6), R4457–R4460 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, “Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. B12(9), 1628–1633 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Q. Chen, X. Yang, S. Y. Zhong, Z. Yan, T. H. Zhang, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Surface dark screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3801–3803 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. V. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface waves in defocusing thermal media,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2260–2262 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. R. Skinner and D. R. Andersen, “Stationary fundamental dark surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8(4), 759–764 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. J. Chen, “Bright and dark surface waves at a nonlinear interface,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4974–4978 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. J. Chen, “Stability of bright and dark surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. B10(6), 1077–1080 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Anastassiou, M. F. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. G. Chen, and M. Segev, “Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition,” Opt. Lett.23(12), 924–926 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

2007

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. V. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface waves in defocusing thermal media,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2260–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

1999

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

1995

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, “Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. B12(9), 1628–1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).

M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2075–2077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

G. C. Valley, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A50(6), R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

Y. J. Chen, “Stability of bright and dark surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. B10(6), 1077–1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. J. Chen, “Bright and dark surface waves at a nonlinear interface,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4974–4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1989

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, “Nonlinear wave propagation in planar structures,” P. Prog. Opt.27, 229–313 (1989).

1988

Aceves, A.

Alfassi, B.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastassiou, C.

Andersen, D. R.

Bashaw, M. C.

G. C. Valley, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A50(6), R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertolotti, M.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, “Nonlinear wave propagation in planar structures,” P. Prog. Opt.27, 229–313 (1989).

Bezryadina, A.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, “Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. B12(9), 1628–1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chauvet, M.

Chen, W. Q.

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, “Stability of bright and dark surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. B10(6), 1077–1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, “Bright and dark surface waves at a nonlinear interface,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4974–4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. G.

Christodoulides, D. N.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, “Diffraction-free planar beams in unbiased photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.21(18), 1460–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, “Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. B12(9), 1628–1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T. H.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Crosignani, B.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

DiPorto, P.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreisow, F.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, E.

Fejer, M. M.

G. C. Valley, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A50(6), R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia Quirino, G. S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).

Garrett, M. H.

Hache, A.

Heatley, D. R.

Hu, Z. J.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. Z.

Kartashov, Y. V.

Y. V. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface waves in defocusing thermal media,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2260–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. H.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. M.

Lou, C. B.

Ma, H. H.

Makris, K. G.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manela, O.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihalache, D.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, “Nonlinear wave propagation in planar structures,” P. Prog. Opt.27, 229–313 (1989).

Mitchell, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X. K.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safioui, J.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).

Segev, M.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, M. F. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. G. Chen, and M. Segev, “Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition,” Opt. Lett.23(12), 924–926 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, W. W.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. F.

Sibilia, C.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, “Nonlinear wave propagation in planar structures,” P. Prog. Opt.27, 229–313 (1989).

Skinner, S. R.

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).

Suntsov, S.

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Torner, L.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface waves in defocusing thermal media,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2260–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A50(6), R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varatharajah, P.

Vysloukh, V. A.

Wang, B. H.

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3298–3300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. S.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

Xu, J. J.

Xu, Y. H.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.

Yang, D. P.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, F. W.

Zhang, T. H.

Zhong, S. Y.

Zhu, B. G.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Opt. Soc. B

Y. J. Chen, “Stability of bright and dark surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. B10(6), 1077–1080 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, “Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. B12(9), 1628–1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

W. Q. Chen, X. Yang, S. Y. Zhong, Z. Yan, T. H. Zhang, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Surface dark screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3801–3803 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. V. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface waves in defocusing thermal media,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2260–2262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2075–2077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3298–3300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Safioui, E. Fazio, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Surface-wave pyroelectric photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1254–1256 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1605–1607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Varatharajah, A. Aceves, J. V. Moloney, D. R. Heatley, and E. M. Wright, “Stationary nonlinear surface waves and their stability in diffusive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett.13(8), 690–692 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, “Diffraction-free planar beams in unbiased photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.21(18), 1460–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, M. F. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. G. Chen, and M. Segev, “Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition,” Opt. Lett.23(12), 924–926 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Prog. Opt.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, “Nonlinear wave propagation in planar structures,” P. Prog. Opt.27, 229–313 (1989).

Phys. Rev. A

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).

G. C. Valley, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A50(6), R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, “Bright and dark surface waves at a nonlinear interface,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4974–4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Equivalent force F, corresponding PR DSWs modes and their stability tests with 10% noise for the case of g >b and bκIbg(Ib + 1) > 0. a(1), b(1) and c(1) are the equivalent force F with Ib = 10 for g = 1.1959 × 109m−2, g = 1.2459 × 109m−2, and g = 1.2885 × 109m−2, respectively; a(2,6), b(2,6) and c(2,6) are two typical PR DSWs modes corresponding to a(1), b(1) and c(1), respectively; a(5,9), b(5,9), c(5,9) are the stability tests for the PR DSWs modes of a(2,6)− c(2,6), respectively; a(3,7)−c(3,7) are the input light fields in stability tests corresponding to a(5,9)−c(5,9), respectively; a(4,8)−c(4,8) are the corresponding output light fields.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Equivalent force F, corresponding bright PR SWs modes and their stability tests with 10% noise for the case of 2, 3, and 4. a(1)-a(5) for the case of g > b and bκIbg(Ib + 1) < 0 with g = 1.217 × 109 m−2 and Ib = 1.5; b(1)-b(5) for the case of g < b and bκIbg(Ib + 1) < 0 with g = 1.180 × 109 m−2 and Ib = 1.5; c(1)-c(2) for the case of g < b, bκIbg(Ib + 1) > 0 with g = 1.182 × 109 m−2 and Ib = 10.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 E(x,z)+ k 2 E(x,z)=0.
E sc = k B T q d dx ln[ I(x)+ I b + I d ] E P I(x)+κ I b I(x)+ I b + I d ,
  2 A(x) x 2 +γ A 2 (x) A 2 (x)+ I b +1 A(x) x +b A 2 (x)+κ I b A 2 (x)+ I b +1 A(x)+gA(x)=0, (x>0)
2 x 2 A(x)+( k 0 2 n 0 2 β 2 )A(x)=0, (x<0)
F=b A 2 (x)+κ I b A 2 (x)+ I b +1 A(x)gA(x)= (bg) A 3 (x)+[ bκ I b g( I b +1) ]A(x) A 2 (x)+ I b +1 ,
dF dA(x) =b [ ( I b +1)κ I b ] A 2 (x) [ A 2 (x)+ I b +1 ] 2 <0.

Metrics