Abstract

A key obstacle to the experimental realization of many photonic quantum-enhanced technologies is the lack of low-loss sources of single photons in pure quantum states. We demonstrate a promising solution: generation of heralded single photons in a silica photonic chip by spontaneous four-wave mixing. A heralding efficiency of 40%, corresponding to a preparation efficiency of 80% accounting for detector performance, is achieved due to efficient coupling of the low-loss source to optical fibers. A single photon purity of 0.86 is measured from the source number statistics without narrow spectral filtering, and confirmed by direct measurement of the joint spectral intensity. We calculate that similar high-heralded-purity output can be obtained from visible to telecom spectral regions using this approach. On-chip silica sources can have immediate application in a wide range of single-photon quantum optics applications which employ silica photonics.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science339, 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun.4, 1356 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, V. Giovannetti, R. Fazio, L. Sansoni, F. D. Nicola, F. Sciarrino, and P. Mataloni, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics7, 322–328 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Garay-Palmett, Y. Jeronimo-Moreno, and A. B. U’Ren, “Theory of cavity-enhanced spontaneous four wave mixing,” Laser Phys.23, 015201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, W. S. Kolthammer, T. F. M. Champion, M. R. Sprague, P. S. Michelberger, X.-M. Jin, D. G. England, and I. A. Walmsley, “Enhancing multiphoton rates with quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 133601 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Harder, V. Ansari, B. Brecht, T. Dirmeier, C. Marquardt, and C. Silberhorn, “An optimized photon pair source for quantum circuits,” arXiv:1304.6635 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

M. Davanco, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 261104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ and C. Silberhorn, “Limits on the deterministic creation of pure single-photon states using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A85, 023829 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Lucamarini, G. Vallone, I. Gianani, P. Mataloni, and G. Di Giuseppe, “Device-independent entanglement-based Bennett 1992 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A86, 032325 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Salter, A. Jesacher, J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, R. D. Simmonds, N. K. Langford, I. A. Walmsley, and M. J. Booth, “Adaptive slit beam shaping for direct laser written waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 470–472 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Karpiński, C. Radzewicz, and K. Banaszek, “Dispersion-based control of modal characteristics for parametric down-conversion in a multimode waveguide,” Opt. Lett.37, 878–880 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, K. Amemiya, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Titanium-based transition-edge photon number resolving detector with 98% detection efficiency with index-matched small-gap fiber coupling,” Opt. Express19, 870–875 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lepert, M. Trupke, E. A. Hinds, H. Rogers, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration of UV-written waveguides, Bragg gratings and cavities at 780 nm, and an original experimental measurement of group delay,” Opt. Express19, 24933–24943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Datta, L. Zhang, N. Thomas-Peter, U. Dorner, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum metrology with imperfect states and detectors,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Jennewein, M. Barbieri, and A. G. White, “Single-photon device requirements for operating linear optics quantum computing outside the post-selection basis,” J. Mod. Optic.58, 276–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Söller, O. Cohen, B. J. Smith, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Silberhorn, “High-performance single-photon generation with commercial-grade optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A83, 031806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, G. D. Marshall, A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generation of correlated photon pairs in a chalcogenide As2S3waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 051101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics6, 45–49 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun.2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. Owens, M. A. Broome, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. E. Goggin, A. Fedrizzi, T. Linjordet, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, J. Twamley, M. J. Withford, and A. G. White, “Two-photon quantum walks in an elliptical direct-write waveguide array,” New J. Phys.13, 075003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.11, 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Mauerer, M. Avenhaus, W. Helwig, and C. Silberhorn, “How colors influence numbers: Photon statistics of parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, A. Christ, A. Eckstein, and C. Silberhorn, “Direct measurement of the spatial-spectral structure of waveguided parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 233901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Complete discrimination of strain and temperature using Brillouin frequency shift and birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express17, 1248–1255 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Halder, J. Fulconis, B. Cemlyn, A. Clark, C. Xiong, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Nonclassical 2-photon interference with separate intrinsically narrowband fibre sources,” Opt. Express17, 4670–4676 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhong, F. N. C. Wong, T. D. Roberts, and P. Battle, “High performance photon-pair source based on a fiber-coupled periodically poled KTiOPO4waveguide,” Opt. Express17, 12019–12030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express17, 12546–12554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Smith, P. Mahou, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “Photon pair generation in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Express17, 23589–23602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Varnava, D. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “How good must single photon sources and detectors be for efficient linear optical quantum computation?” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 060502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. Agrawal, “Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization,” Phys. Rev. A75, 023803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro and F. N. C. Wong, “On-demand single-photon generation using a modular array of parametric downconverters with electro-optic polarization controls,” Opt. Lett.32, 2698–2700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, R. Erdmann, W. P. Grice, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation of pure-state single-photon wavepackets,” Laser Phys.15, 146–161 (2005).

2004

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: Beating the standard quantum limit,” Science306, 1330–1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, “Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43, 8048–8052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Fiorentino, P. Voss, J. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.14, 983–985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A66, 053805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature409, 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A. Walmsley, “Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states,” Phys. Rev. A64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. K. Law, I. A. Walmsley, and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous frequency entanglement: Effective finite Hilbert space and entropy control,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5304–5307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

H. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, and M. Eibl, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature67, 749–752 (1997).

1996

1993

F. Zhang and J. W. Y. Lit, “Temperature and strain sensitivity measurements of high-birefringent polarization-maintaining fibers,” Appl. Optics32, 2213–2218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981

1836

M. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. Saleh, A. Sergienko, M. Teich, J. Torres, L. Torner, D. Hum, and M. Fejer, “Ultra-broadband biphotons generated via chirped quasi-phase-matched optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 183601 (2008).

Agha, I.

M. Davanco, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 261104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. Agrawal, “Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization,” Phys. Rev. A75, 023803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, K.

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J. O. Owens, M. A. Broome, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. E. Goggin, A. Fedrizzi, T. Linjordet, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, J. Twamley, M. J. Withford, and A. G. White, “Two-photon quantum walks in an elliptical direct-write waveguide array,” New J. Phys.13, 075003 (2011).
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A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, R. Erdmann, W. P. Grice, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation of pure-state single-photon wavepackets,” Laser Phys.15, 146–161 (2005).

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B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun.4, 1356 (2013).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science339, 798–801 (2013).
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A. Datta, L. Zhang, N. Thomas-Peter, U. Dorner, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum metrology with imperfect states and detectors,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063836 (2011).
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C. Söller, O. Cohen, B. J. Smith, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Silberhorn, “High-performance single-photon generation with commercial-grade optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A83, 031806 (2011).
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O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Smith, P. Mahou, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “Photon pair generation in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Express17, 23589–23602 (2009).
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P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 133601 (2008).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science339, 798–801 (2013).
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C. Söller, O. Cohen, B. J. Smith, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Silberhorn, “High-performance single-photon generation with commercial-grade optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A83, 031806 (2011).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science339, 798–801 (2013).
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A. Datta, L. Zhang, N. Thomas-Peter, U. Dorner, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum metrology with imperfect states and detectors,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063836 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental layout consists of (a) state preparation and (b–d) characterization. (a) A 4-f line with an adjustable slit is used to control the bandwidth of the pump (Δλp). After the chip, the pump is filtered out while the signal and idler fields are separated by a dichroic mirror (DM) and coupled into separate single-mode fibers (SMFs). (b) Source count rate and cross-correlation g si ( 2 ) ( 0 ) are measured with the SMFs coupled directly into avalanche photodiodes (APDs). (c) The autocorrelation g ii ( 2 ) ( 0 ) is measured by connecting the idler fiber to a fiber beam splitter (BS) with a reflectivity of 50% and ignoring the signal field, while the signal field is used as a herald when determining g H ( 2 ) ( 0 ). We measure g ss ( 2 ) ( 0 ) by inserting the signal fiber into the BS and ignoring the idler field (not shown). (d) To measure joint spectral intensities, the source SMFs are connected to separate monochromators with multi-mode fibers (MMFs) at the output performing a raster scan over the joint spectral range while APDs count in coincidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The count rate for the signal mode alone (Ns) and in temporal coincidence with the idler mode (Nsi) is shown as a function of the pump power (blue circles). The heralding efficiency, which includes APD detector losses, is calculated according to ηH = Nsi/Ns (green). At low pump powers, ηH decreases due to the heightened importance of detector dark counts, which cause false herald events. The heralded autocorrelation of the idler photon with the signal field as herald, g H ( 2 ) ( 0 ), increases linearly due to spontaneous Raman scattering (red squares). Quadratic (blue) and linear (red) fits to the data are shown with dotted lines. Error bars are smaller than the markers for the count data and g H ( 2 ) ( 0 ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Unheralded g ss ( 2 ) ( 0 ) of the signal field shows control over the amount of spectral entanglement between the signal and idler fields as Δλp is adjusted (brown). Theoretical curve (dotted line) and data (points) are shown. Filtering out the peripheral lobes in the joint spectral intensity with a 4.5 nm filter on the signal field is calculated to give g ss ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = 1.98 at Δλp = 3 nm (green dashed line). Insets: joint spectral intensity (JSI) measurements demonstrate spectral entanglement control. The FWHM of the pump envelope |α|4 (white) and phase-matching function |ϕ|2 (purple) accurately predict JSI orientation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical phasematching curves show the signal (blue) and idler (red) wavelengths that satisfy the condition Δk = 0 for a range of pump wavelengths. Insets show predicted SFWM joint spectral intensities. A factorable output suitable for heralded production of pure photons can be produced over a wide spectral range, from visible to telecom wavelengths, by adjusting λp and Δλp (left to right: Δλp = 3.1, 7.5, 20 nm). These calculations assume L = 4 cm and Δn = 10−4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The heralded state purity resulting from two models of birefringence variation are shown. Gradual variation (solid line) is approximated by a linear dependence Δn(z) = Δn0 + δn) × z/L. Rapid variation (dashed) is modelled by randomly fluctuating birefringence of mean 〈Δn〉 = Δn0 and standard deviation δn). Random inhomogeneity increases the heralded purity for small δn) due to suppression of the peripheral lobes in the joint spectral amplitude. All results assume L = 4 cm and Δn0 = 10−4. Insets show representative joint spectral intensities. The gray shaded region indicates the heralded purity of our source, P = 0.86 ± 0.02.

Equations (4)

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g x y ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = N x y N p N x N y
g H ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = N i 1 i 2 s N s N i 1 s N i 2 s
H ^ SFWM = ζ d ω s d ω i f ( ω s , ω i ) a ^ ( ω s ) b ^ ( ω i ) + H . c .
H ^ SFWM = m = 1 N c m A ^ m ( ω s ) B ^ m ( ω i ) + H . c .

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