Abstract

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are widely used in telecom wavelength optical quantum information science applications. Quantum detector tomography allows the positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) of a single-photon detector to be determined. We use an all-fiber telecom wavelength detector tomography test bed to measure detector characteristics with respect to photon flux and polarization, and hence determine the POVM. We study the SNSPD both as a binary detector and in an 8-bin, fiber based, Time-Multiplexed (TM) configuration at repetition rates up to 4 MHz. The corresponding POVMs provide an accurate picture of the photon number resolving capability of the TM-SNSPD.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (7)

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, M. G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Zhang, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, A. Datta, G. Puentes, J. S. Lundeen, X. M. Jin, B. J. Smith, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 364–368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, A. Datta, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, X.-M. Jin, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Recursive quantum detector tomography,” New J. Phys.14(11), 115005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, and A. Fiore, “Photon-number resolving detector based on a series array of superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in single photon detection: modeling and quantum tomography,” Opt. Express19(22), 21305–21312 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. D’Auria, N. Lee, T. Amri, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Quantum decoherence of single-photon counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(5), 050504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Itzler, X. D. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, S. A. Hamilton, K. K. Berggren, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-order temporal coherences of chaotic and laser light,” Opt. Express18(2), 1430–1437 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O'Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

K. M. R. Audenaert and S. Scheel, “Quantum tomographic reconstruction with error bars: a Kalman filter approach,” New J. Phys.11(2), 023028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 432–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys.11(9), 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys.5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low noise superconducting single photon detectors on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Řeháček, D. Mogilevtsev, and Z. Hradil, “Tomography for quantum diagnostics,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans.Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

G. M. D’Ariano, L. Maccone, and P. Lo Presti, “Quantum calibration of measurement instrumentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(25), 250407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Radebaugh, “Refrigeration for superconductors,” Proc. IEEE92(10), 1719–1734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (3)

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Physica C351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Fiurášek, “Maximum-likelihood estimation of quantum measurement,” Phys. Rev. A64(2), 024102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Luis and L. L. Sanchez-Soto, “Complete characterization of arbitrary quantum measurement processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(18), 3573–3576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. F. Poyatos, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Complete characterization of a quantum process: The two-bit quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(2), 390–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70(9), 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abe, E.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acerbi, F.

M. A. Itzler, X. D. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Achilles, D.

Akhlaghi, M. K.

Akopian, N.

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amri, T.

V. D’Auria, N. Lee, T. Amri, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Quantum decoherence of single-photon counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(5), 050504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anant, V.

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans.Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Audenaert, K. M. R.

K. M. R. Audenaert and S. Scheel, “Quantum tomographic reconstruction with error bars: a Kalman filter approach,” New J. Phys.11(2), 023028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O'Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, S. A. Hamilton, K. K. Berggren, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-order temporal coherences of chaotic and laser light,” Opt. Express18(2), 1430–1437 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banaszek, K.

Beck, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70(9), 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

Bitauld, D.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, M. G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ciavarella, L.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, M. G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

J. F. Poyatos, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Complete characterization of a quantum process: The two-bit quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(2), 390–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coldenstrodt-Ronge, H.

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J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys.5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 432–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys.11(9), 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, “Photon counting with a loop detector,” Opt. Lett.28(1), 52–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, R. J.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O'Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K. W.

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans.Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappa, F.

M. A. Itzler, X. D. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, A. Datta, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, X.-M. Jin, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Recursive quantum detector tomography,” New J. Phys.14(11), 115005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. J.

L. J. Zhang, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, A. Datta, G. Puentes, J. S. Lundeen, X. M. Jin, B. J. Smith, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 364–368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Zijlstra, T.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O'Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low noise superconducting single photon detectors on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

J. F. Poyatos, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Complete characterization of a quantum process: The two-bit quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(2), 390–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zwiller, V.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O'Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low noise superconducting single photon detectors on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, and A. Fiore, “Photon-number resolving detector based on a series array of superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low noise superconducting single photon detectors on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O'Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. (1)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans.Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

M. A. Itzler, X. D. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.58(3-4), 174–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 432–441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (4)

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Zhang, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, A. Datta, G. Puentes, J. S. Lundeen, X. M. Jin, B. J. Smith, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 364–368 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys.5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (5)

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys.11(9), 093038 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, A. Datta, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, X.-M. Jin, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Recursive quantum detector tomography,” New J. Phys.14(11), 115005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, M. G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085001 (2012).
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J. Řeháček, D. Mogilevtsev, and Z. Hradil, “Tomography for quantum diagnostics,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043022 (2008).
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K. M. R. Audenaert and S. Scheel, “Quantum tomographic reconstruction with error bars: a Kalman filter approach,” New J. Phys.11(2), 023028 (2009).
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V. D’Auria, N. Lee, T. Amri, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Quantum decoherence of single-photon counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(5), 050504 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental setup for the tomography experiment for a binary SNSPD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time-multiplexed (TM) fiber network for photon number resolving single photon detection [23]. A pair of SNSPDs is implemented at the outputs to create a TM-SNSPD. (b) An oscilloscope trace showing the output pulses from one of the SNSPDs in the TM detector, the optical pulse split is over 4 time bins in each path.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The measured statistics of click and no click from a SNSPD binary detector operating at 1550 nm wavelength at a repetition rate of 1 MHz. The data acquisition time was 0.5 seconds/point. (b) The measured statistics from a TM-SNSPD detector for 0-8 clicks at λ = 1550 nm operating at 1 MHz repetition rate. The data acquisition time was 0.5 seconds/point. (c) Diagonal elements of the reconstructed POVM elements for clicks 0, 1, 2 from a TM-SNSPD at λ = 1550 nm. The shaded bar represents bias point 0.7 × IC and the unshaded bar represents 0.9 × IC . (d) diagonal elements of the reconstructed POVM elements for clicks 0 and 1 for a binary-SNSPD is plotted at λ = 1550 nm. The shaded bars represent the bias point 0.7 × IC and the unshaded bars represent 0.9 × IC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A schematic to represent the orientation of the electric field, E of the optical illumination with respect to the SNSPD meander geometry. The detection efficiency is maximized when the electric field is polarized along the length of the nanowire segments (x-direction) (b) Diagonal elements of the reconstructed POVM elements for clicks 0 and 1 from a binary SNSPD (biased at 0.9 × IC) at λ = 1550 nm are plotted. The shaded graph represents low polarization counts and the unshaded graph represents high polarization counts. (c) Diagonal elements of the reconstructed POVM elements for clicks 0, 1, 2 and 3 from a TM-SNSPD (biased at 0.9 × IC) at λ = 1550 nm. In each case the blue graph represents high polarization counts and the black graph represents low polarization counts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagonal elements of the reconstructed POVM elements for clicks 0, 1, 2 and 3 from a TM-SNSPD (biased at 0.9 × IC) at λ = 1310 nm at a repetition rate of 4 MHz.

Equations (1)

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π n = k=0 θ k (n) |kk| .

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