Abstract

We demonstrate intra- and inter-board level optical interconnects using polymer waveguides and waveguide couplers consisting of both 45 degree total internal reflection (TIR) mirrors and inkjet-printed micro-lenses. Surface normal couplers consisting of 50 µm × 50 µm waveguides with embedded 45 degree mirrors are fabricated using a nickel mold imprint. Micro-lenses, 70 µm in diameter, are inkjet-printed on top of the mirrors. We characterize the optical transmission between waveguides located on different boards in terms of insertion loss, mirror coupling loss, and free space propagation loss as a function of interconnection distance in free space. Each mirror contributes 1.88 dB loss to the system, corresponding to 65% efficiency. The printed micro-lenses improve the transmission by 2-4 dB (per coupler). Data transmission at 10 Gbps reveals that inter-board interconnects has a bit error rate (BER) of 1.1 × 10−10 and 6.2 × 10−13 without and with the micro-lenses, respectively.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (7)

L. Brusberg, M. Neitz, and H. Schroder, “Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical inter-chip communication on board-level,” Proc. SPIE8267, 82670M, 82670M-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, G. F. Lu, Y. C. Lee, S. F. Chang, Y. S. Lin, and M. L. Wu, “4 channels x 10-Gbps optoelectronic transceiver based on silicon optical bench technology,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

B. Van Hoe, E. Bosman, J. Missinne, S. Kalathimekkad, G. Van Steenberge, and P. Van Daele, “Novel coupling and packaging approaches for optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE8267, 82670T, 82670T-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Jiang, S. Baig, and M. R. Wang, “Soft lithography fabricated polymer waveguides with 45 degrees inclined mirrors for card-to-backplane optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, Y. C. Chang, Y. C. Lee, and M. L. Wu, “Transmitting part of optical interconnect module with three-dimensional optical path,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, S. Wang, J. Y. Hu, I. Savidis, M. Jain, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and H. Wu, “3-D integrated heterogeneous intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” Opt. Express20(4), 4331–4345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant17(2), 384–395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakama, Y. Matsuzawa, Y. Tokiwa, and O. Mikami, “Board-to-board optical plug-in interconnection using optical waveguide plug and micro hole array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1881–1883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, N. B. Brauer, V. Fakhfouri, D. L. Boiko, E. Charbon, G. Grutzner, and J. Brugger, “Hybrid polymer microlens arrays with high numerical apertures fabricated using simple ink-jet printing technique,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Voigt, U. Ostrzinski, K. Pfeiffer, J. Y. Kim, V. Fakhfouri, J. Brugger, and G. Gruetzner, “New inks for the direct drop-on-demand fabrication of polymer lenses,” Microelectron. Eng.88(8), 2174–2179 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (6)

C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens arrays by direct-writing inkjet print for LCD backlighting applications,” J Disp Technol5(5), 147–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chou, K. Yu, D. Horsley, B. Yoxall, S. Mathai, M. R. T. Tan, S. Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Robust free space board-to-board optical interconnect with closed loop MEMS tracking,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 973–982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wu, L. Vj, M. S. Islam, D. A. Horsley, R. G. Walmsley, S. Mathai, D. Houng, M. R. T. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Integrated receiver architectures for board-to-board free-space optical interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 1079–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. Mclaren, M. Tan, and S. Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 955–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, W. Yu, M. Yao, M. R. Pepper, and J. H. Freeland-Graves, “Three-dimensional surface imaging system for assessing human obesity,” Opt. Eng.48(10), a156427 (2009).
[PubMed]

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–U260 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng.46(1), 015403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Yang, A. S. Flores, and M. R. Wang, “Array waveguide evanescent ribbon coupler for card-to-backplane optical interconnects,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 14–16 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. H. Choi, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal-via structures on thin-film VCSELs for fully embedded board-level optical interconnection system,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1060–1065 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Wang, X. L. Wang, W. Jiang, J. H. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45 degrees polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, ••• (2005).

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. G. Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, “Control of a free-space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

Y. J. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Optoelectronic integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(4), 355–357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. N. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for Vlsi systems,” Proc. IEEE72(7), 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for Vlsi systems,” Proc. IEEE72(7), 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Awatsuji, Y.

Ayliffe, M. H.

Baig, S.

G. M. Jiang, S. Baig, and M. R. Wang, “Soft lithography fabricated polymer waveguides with 45 degrees inclined mirrors for card-to-backplane optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

Baks, C. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, R.

Benabes, P.

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berman, R.

Bertilsson, K.

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bi, H.

X. L. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board-level optical interconnects from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Choi, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal-via structures on thin-film VCSELs for fully embedded board-level optical interconnection system,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1060–1065 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. L. Wang, W. Jiang, J. H. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45 degrees polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, ••• (2005).

Bierhoff, T.

Bihari, B.

Y. J. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Optoelectronic integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(4), 355–357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. N. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Boisset, G. C.

Bosman, E.

B. Van Hoe, E. Bosman, J. Missinne, S. Kalathimekkad, G. Van Steenberge, and P. Van Daele, “Novel coupling and packaging approaches for optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE8267, 82670T, 82670T-11 (2012).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brauer, N. B.

Bristow, J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. N. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brugger, J.

J. Y. Kim, N. B. Brauer, V. Fakhfouri, D. L. Boiko, E. Charbon, G. Grutzner, and J. Brugger, “Hybrid polymer microlens arrays with high numerical apertures fabricated using simple ink-jet printing technique,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Voigt, U. Ostrzinski, K. Pfeiffer, J. Y. Kim, V. Fakhfouri, J. Brugger, and G. Gruetzner, “New inks for the direct drop-on-demand fabrication of polymer lenses,” Microelectron. Eng.88(8), 2174–2179 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Brusberg, M. Neitz, and H. Schroder, “Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical inter-chip communication on board-level,” Proc. SPIE8267, 82670M, 82670M-10 (2012).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Chang, C. C.

C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, G. F. Lu, Y. C. Lee, S. F. Chang, Y. S. Lin, and M. L. Wu, “4 channels x 10-Gbps optoelectronic transceiver based on silicon optical bench technology,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, Y. C. Chang, Y. C. Lee, and M. L. Wu, “Transmitting part of optical interconnect module with three-dimensional optical path,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

Chang, S. F.

C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, G. F. Lu, Y. C. Lee, S. F. Chang, Y. S. Lin, and M. L. Wu, “4 channels x 10-Gbps optoelectronic transceiver based on silicon optical bench technology,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

Chang, Y. C.

C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, Y. C. Chang, Y. C. Lee, and M. L. Wu, “Transmitting part of optical interconnect module with three-dimensional optical path,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

Charbon, E.

Chen, C. T.

C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, Y. C. Chang, Y. C. Lee, and M. L. Wu, “Transmitting part of optical interconnect module with three-dimensional optical path,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, G. F. Lu, Y. C. Lee, S. F. Chang, Y. S. Lin, and M. L. Wu, “4 channels x 10-Gbps optoelectronic transceiver based on silicon optical bench technology,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

Chen, R.

L. Wang, X. L. Wang, W. Jiang, J. H. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45 degrees polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, ••• (2005).

Chen, R. T.

X. Y. Dou, X. L. Wang, H. Y. Huang, X. H. Lin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, and R. T. Chen, “Polymeric waveguides with embedded micro-mirrors formed by Metallic Hard Mold,” Opt. Express18(1), 378–385 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board-level optical interconnects from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Choi, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal-via structures on thin-film VCSELs for fully embedded board-level optical interconnection system,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1060–1065 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. J. Liu, J. H. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, “Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(9), 2168–2176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Optoelectronic integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(4), 355–357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. N. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

Choi, C.

Y. J. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Optoelectronic integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(4), 355–357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. N. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. C.

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal-via structures on thin-film VCSELs for fully embedded board-level optical interconnection system,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1060–1065 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. L. Wang, W. Jiang, J. H. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45 degrees polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, ••• (2005).

C. C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. J. Liu, J. H. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, “Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(9), 2168–2176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.

J. Chou, K. Yu, D. Horsley, B. Yoxall, S. Mathai, M. R. T. Tan, S. Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Robust free space board-to-board optical interconnect with closed loop MEMS tracking,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 973–982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Clausen, A. T.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–U260 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

E. M. Strzelecka, D. A. Louderback, B. J. Thibeault, G. B. Thompson, K. Bertilsson, and L. A. Coldren, “Parallel free-space optical interconnect based on arrays of vertical-cavity lasers and detectors with monolithic microlenses,” Appl. Opt.37(14), 2811–2821 (1998).
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E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Debaes, C.

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, D.

Doany, F. E.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dou, X. Y.

Fakhfouri, V.

J. Y. Kim, N. B. Brauer, V. Fakhfouri, D. L. Boiko, E. Charbon, G. Grutzner, and J. Brugger, “Hybrid polymer microlens arrays with high numerical apertures fabricated using simple ink-jet printing technique,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 259–269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Voigt, U. Ostrzinski, K. Pfeiffer, J. Y. Kim, V. Fakhfouri, J. Brugger, and G. Gruetzner, “New inks for the direct drop-on-demand fabrication of polymer lenses,” Microelectron. Eng.88(8), 2174–2179 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, G.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. G. Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, “Control of a free-space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, C.

Flores, A.

Flores, A. S.

Freeland-Graves, J. H.

B. Xu, W. Yu, M. Yao, M. R. Pepper, and J. H. Freeland-Graves, “Three-dimensional surface imaging system for assessing human obesity,” Opt. Eng.48(10), a156427 (2009).
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Galili, M.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–U260 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Glebov, A. L.

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng.46(1), 015403 (2007).
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Gmur, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
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J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for Vlsi systems,” Proc. IEEE72(7), 850–866 (1984).
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Gruetzner, G.

A. Voigt, U. Ostrzinski, K. Pfeiffer, J. Y. Kim, V. Fakhfouri, J. Brugger, and G. Gruetzner, “New inks for the direct drop-on-demand fabrication of polymer lenses,” Microelectron. Eng.88(8), 2174–2179 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–U260 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grutzner, G.

Guckenberger, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hansen Mulvad, H. C.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–U260 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, C. J.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. G. Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, “Control of a free-space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickx, N.

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. N. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

Horsley, D.

J. Chou, K. Yu, D. Horsley, B. Yoxall, S. Mathai, M. R. T. Tan, S. Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Robust free space board-to-board optical interconnect with closed loop MEMS tracking,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 973–982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horsley, D. A.

F. Wu, L. Vj, M. S. Islam, D. A. Horsley, R. G. Walmsley, S. Mathai, D. Houng, M. R. T. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Integrated receiver architectures for board-to-board free-space optical interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 1079–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houng, D.

F. Wu, L. Vj, M. S. Islam, D. A. Horsley, R. G. Walmsley, S. Mathai, D. Houng, M. R. T. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Integrated receiver architectures for board-to-board free-space optical interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 1079–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, H. L.

C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, G. F. Lu, Y. C. Lee, S. F. Chang, Y. S. Lin, and M. L. Wu, “4 channels x 10-Gbps optoelectronic transceiver based on silicon optical bench technology,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, Y. C. Chang, Y. C. Lee, and M. L. Wu, “Transmitting part of optical interconnect module with three-dimensional optical path,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

Hsiao, W.

Hu, E. L.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. D. Robinson, L. A. Coldren, and E. L. Hu, “Fabrication of refractive microlenses in semiconductors by mask shape transfer in reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 385–388 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J. Y.

Huang, H. Y.

Huang, M.

Hung, C. H.

C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens arrays by direct-writing inkjet print for LCD backlighting applications,” J Disp Technol5(5), 147–151 (2009).
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Inoue, J.

Islam, M. S.

F. Wu, L. Vj, M. S. Islam, D. A. Horsley, R. G. Walmsley, S. Mathai, D. Houng, M. R. T. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Integrated receiver architectures for board-to-board free-space optical interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 1079–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Jain, M.

Jarczynski, M.

Jeppesen, P.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–U260 (2009).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, Y. C. Chang, Y. C. Lee, and M. L. Wu, “Transmitting part of optical interconnect module with three-dimensional optical path,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J Sel Top Quant12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).
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H. P. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. Mclaren, M. Tan, and S. Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 955–965 (2009).
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F. Wu, L. Vj, M. S. Islam, D. A. Horsley, R. G. Walmsley, S. Mathai, D. Houng, M. R. T. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Integrated receiver architectures for board-to-board free-space optical interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 1079–1088 (2009).
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Wang, X. L.

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C. C. Chang, P. K. Shen, C. T. Chen, H. L. Hsiao, Y. C. Chang, Y. C. Lee, and M. L. Wu, “Transmitting part of optical interconnect module with three-dimensional optical path,” Proc. SPIE8267, ••• (2012).

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C. H. Tien, C. H. Hung, and T. H. Yu, “Microlens arrays by direct-writing inkjet print for LCD backlighting applications,” J Disp Technol5(5), 147–151 (2009).
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Appl Phys A-Mater (3)

H. P. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. Mclaren, M. Tan, and S. Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 955–965 (2009).
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J. Chou, K. Yu, D. Horsley, B. Yoxall, S. Mathai, M. R. T. Tan, S. Y. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Robust free space board-to-board optical interconnect with closed loop MEMS tracking,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 973–982 (2009).
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F. Wu, L. Vj, M. S. Islam, D. A. Horsley, R. G. Walmsley, S. Mathai, D. Houng, M. R. T. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Integrated receiver architectures for board-to-board free-space optical interconnects,” Appl Phys A-Mater95(4), 1079–1088 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (5)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Inter- and intra-board optical interconnects with polymer waveguides and 45o couplers with ink-jet printed micro-lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

fabrication process for molded channel waveguide with 45 degree embedded mirror coupler. The scale bar represents 50µm length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) AFM scanning the 45 degree slope for surface roughness; (b) surface of electroplated Ni; (c) after coating releasing layer

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) top view of embedded mirror before printing micro-lens (b) top view of embedded mirror after printing micro-lens with d = 70µm. (c) the lens profile taken by contact angle goniometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Board-to-board experimental setup showing, (a) one waveguide with two 45 degree mirrors, (b) two waveguides with four 45 degree mirrors. Visible spots show the output after 2 mirrors and 4 mirrors. They are used for pre-alignment of two boards (632 nm visible laser as input, only for pre-alignment)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Total insertion loss with the separation between two boards, when 2 mirrors, 2 mirrors w/lens and 4 mirrors are included. (b) transmission loss in free space when using 45 degree coupler with/without lens and proximity coupler with lens from [9]

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Q factors with different data rate, at different separations. Two mirror couplers are included in optical path. (b) Bit Error Rate distribution (BER) with data rate at different separations with/without inkjet-printed lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eye diagrams at selected data rate (2Gbps, 6Gbps and 10Gbps): (a) 1 mm separation with 2 mirrors; (b) 1 mm separation with 2 mirrors and 1 lens; (c) 2 mm separation with 2 mirrors and 1 lens.

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