Abstract

The temporal evolution of the charge density distribution in femtosecond laser produced electron pulses was studied using electron-laser pulse cross correlation techniques and compared to analytical predictions and simulations. The influence of propagation time and weak magnetic focusing were both investigated. Our results show that ultrashort electron pulses develop a relatively uniform internal charge density as they propagate, which is in good agreement with analytical predictions, and that weakly focusing an ultrashort electron pulse results in an increased internal charge density towards the leading edge of the pulse.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 1643–1648 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Michalik and J. E. Sipe, “Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments,” J Appl. Phys.99, 054908 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. W. Reed, “Femtosecond electron pulse propagation for ultrafast electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 034916 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. P. Chatelain, V. R. Morrison, C. Godbout, and B. J. Siwick, “Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081901 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Wang and N. Gedik, “Electron Pulse Compression With a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.18, 140–147 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Otake, “Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A637, S7–S11 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Srinivasan, V. A. Lobastov, C.-Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED),” Helv. Chim. Acta.86, 1761–1799 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. V. Oudheusden, J. R. Nohlmans, W. S. C. Roelofs, and W. P. E. M. O. Root, “3 GHz RF Streak Camera for Diagnosis of sub-100 fs, 100 keV Electron Bunches,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, P Corkum, S DeSilvestri, KA Nelson, and Riedle, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009), 938–940.
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, “Characterization of ultrashort electron pulses by electron-laser pulse cross correlation.” Opt. Lett.30, 1057–1059 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering.” Opt. Lett.31, 3517–3519 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express16, 3334–3341 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

R. P. Chatelain, V. R. Morrison, C. Godbout, and B. J. Siwick, “Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and N. Gedik, “Electron Pulse Compression With a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.18, 140–147 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Otake, “Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A637, S7–S11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. M. Michalik and J. E. Sipe, “Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments,” J Appl. Phys.99, 054908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Reed, “Femtosecond electron pulse propagation for ultrafast electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 034916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering.” Opt. Lett.31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, “Characterization of ultrashort electron pulses by electron-laser pulse cross correlation.” Opt. Lett.30, 1057–1059 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. Srinivasan, V. A. Lobastov, C.-Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED),” Helv. Chim. Acta.86, 1761–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Auret, F. D.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berden, G.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaszczyk, L.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buckanie, N. M.

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, G. H.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chatelain, R. P.

R. P. Chatelain, V. R. Morrison, C. Godbout, and B. J. Siwick, “Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coelho, S. M. M.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooney, R. R.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dartigalongue, T.

de Jong, E. F.

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Loos, M.

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwayne Miller, R. J.

Dwyer, J. R.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

England, R.

P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erasmus, N.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ernstorfer, R.

Frank, A.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gedik, N.

Y. Wang and N. Gedik, “Electron Pulse Compression With a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.18, 140–147 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, W.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godbout, C.

R. P. Chatelain, V. R. Morrison, C. Godbout, and B. J. Siwick, “Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Göhre, J.

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. A.

Hao, Z.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harb, M.

Haupt, K.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hebeisen, C. T.

Horn-von Hoegen, M.

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jean-ruel, H.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jong, M. D.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. E.

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering.” Opt. Lett.31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kassier, G. H.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kau, D.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiewiet, F.

O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, W. E.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knippels, G.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruglik, S. G.

Lobastov, V. A.

R. Srinivasan, V. A. Lobastov, C.-Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED),” Helv. Chim. Acta.86, 1761–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, O.

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luiten, O. J.

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, A.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer Zu Heringdorf, F.-J.

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michalik, A. M.

A. M. Michalik and J. E. Sipe, “Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments,” J Appl. Phys.99, 054908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, “Characterization of ultrashort electron pulses by electron-laser pulse cross correlation.” Opt. Lett.30, 1057–1059 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moody, J.

P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriena, G.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, V. R.

R. P. Chatelain, V. R. Morrison, C. Godbout, and B. J. Siwick, “Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Musumeci, P.

P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nohlmans, J. R.

T. V. Oudheusden, J. R. Nohlmans, W. S. C. Roelofs, and W. P. E. M. O. Root, “3 GHz RF Streak Camera for Diagnosis of sub-100 fs, 100 keV Electron Bunches,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, P Corkum, S DeSilvestri, KA Nelson, and Riedle, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009), 938–940.
[CrossRef]

Otake, Y.

Y. Otake, “Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A637, S7–S11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oudheusden, T. V.

T. V. Oudheusden, J. R. Nohlmans, W. S. C. Roelofs, and W. P. E. M. O. Root, “3 GHz RF Streak Camera for Diagnosis of sub-100 fs, 100 keV Electron Bunches,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, P Corkum, S DeSilvestri, KA Nelson, and Riedle, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009), 938–940.
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pasmans, P.

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, B.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reed, B. W.

B. W. Reed, “Femtosecond electron pulse propagation for ultrafast electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 034916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roelofs, W. S. C.

T. V. Oudheusden, J. R. Nohlmans, W. S. C. Roelofs, and W. P. E. M. O. Root, “3 GHz RF Streak Camera for Diagnosis of sub-100 fs, 100 keV Electron Bunches,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, P Corkum, S DeSilvestri, KA Nelson, and Riedle, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009), 938–940.
[CrossRef]

Rohwer, E. G.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Root, W. P. E. M. O.

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Oudheusden, J. R. Nohlmans, W. S. C. Roelofs, and W. P. E. M. O. Root, “3 GHz RF Streak Camera for Diagnosis of sub-100 fs, 100 keV Electron Bunches,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, P Corkum, S DeSilvestri, KA Nelson, and Riedle, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009), 938–940.
[CrossRef]

Rosenzweig, J.

P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, C.-Y.

R. Srinivasan, V. A. Lobastov, C.-Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED),” Helv. Chim. Acta.86, 1761–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmerge, J. F.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwoerer, H.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sciaini, G.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Michalik and J. E. Sipe, “Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments,” J Appl. Phys.99, 054908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siwick, B. J.

R. P. Chatelain, V. R. Morrison, C. Godbout, and B. J. Siwick, “Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, A. A. Green, C. T. Hebeisen, and R. J. D. Miller, “Characterization of ultrashort electron pulses by electron-laser pulse cross correlation.” Opt. Lett.30, 1057–1059 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, R.

R. Srinivasan, V. A. Lobastov, C.-Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED),” Helv. Chim. Acta.86, 1761–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stampe, J.

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tao, C.

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tran, T.

P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Geer, S.

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Geer, S. B.

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, A.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Wiel, M.

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oudheusden, T.

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

von Bergmann, H. M.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Linde, D.

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and N. Gedik, “Electron Pulse Compression With a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.18, 140–147 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weber, P. M.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, I.

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zewail, A. H.

R. Srinivasan, V. A. Lobastov, C.-Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED),” Helv. Chim. Acta.86, 1761–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. P. Chatelain, V. R. Morrison, C. Godbout, and B. J. Siwick, “Ultrafast electron diffraction with radio-frequency compressed electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Cao, Z. Hao, H. Park, C. Tao, D. Kau, and L. Blaszczyk, “Femtosecond electron diffraction for direct measurement of ultrafast atomic motions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1044–1046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Helv. Chim. Acta. (1)

R. Srinivasan, V. A. Lobastov, C.-Y. Ruan, and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED),” Helv. Chim. Acta.86, 1761–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Wang and N. Gedik, “Electron Pulse Compression With a Practical Reflectron Design for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.18, 140–147 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J Appl. Phys. (1)

A. M. Michalik and J. E. Sipe, “Analytic model of electron pulse propagation in ultrafast electron diffraction experiments,” J Appl. Phys.99, 054908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

B. W. Reed, “Femtosecond electron pulse propagation for ultrafast electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 034916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. van Oudheusden, E. F. de Jong, S. B. van der Geer, W. P. E. M. O. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

N. M. Buckanie, J. Göhre, P. Zhou, D. von der Linde, M. Horn-von Hoegen, and F.-J. Meyer Zu Heringdorf, “Space charge effects in photoemission electron microscopy using amplified femtosecond laser pulses.” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter21, 314003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A (1)

Y. Otake, “Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A637, S7–S11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

M. Gao, H. Jean-ruel, R. R. Cooney, J. Stampe, M. D. Jong, M. Harb, G. Sciaini, G. Moriena, and R. J. D. Miller, “Full characterization of RF compressed femtosecond electron pulses using ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Express20, 799–802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

I. Wilke, A. MacLeod, W. Gillespie, G. Berden, G. Knippels, and A. van der Meer, “Single-Shot Electron-Beam Bunch Length Measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 124801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Luiten, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, F. Kiewiet, and M. van der Wiel, “How to Realize Uniform Three-Dimensional Ellipsoidal Electron Bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 094802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Musumeci, J. Moody, R. England, J. Rosenzweig, and T. Tran, “Experimental Generation and Characterization of Uniformly Filled Ellipsoidal Electron-Beam Distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 244801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. van Oudheusden, P. Pasmans, S. van der Geer, M. de Loos, M. van der Wiel, and O. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, H. M. von Bergmann, H. Schwoerer, S. M. M. Coelho, and F. D. Auret, “A compact streak camera for 150 fs time resolved measurement of bright pulses in ultrafast electron diffraction.” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81, 105103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. V. Oudheusden, J. R. Nohlmans, W. S. C. Roelofs, and W. P. E. M. O. Root, “3 GHz RF Streak Camera for Diagnosis of sub-100 fs, 100 keV Electron Bunches,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, P Corkum, S DeSilvestri, KA Nelson, and Riedle, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009), 938–940.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the electron optical setup of the experiment with magnetic lens, S (not to scale). The standing wave created by the two laser pulses is shown as well with the electric field intensity increasing from blue to red (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the electron/laser interation. A pinhole at 45° selects a small core from the center of the electron pulse for which the time-dependent charge density is determined by ponderomotive scattering as described in the text. Image data obtained with a) no overlap, b) partial overlap and c) complete overlap between the electron pulse and the laser pulses is shown in the three rightmost panels. The intensity of the scattered signal outside the main (unscattered) spot provides a relative measure of the local charge density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross correlation measurements(circles) from pulses with 7.5±0.2×104 electrons and energies of 55 kV(blue),65 kV(green), 75 kV(red). The corresponding GPT simulations are shown with dashed lines. A uniform charge density can be seen in all three pulses with an increasing pulse length with decreasing energy. A cross correlation measurement from a short, low charge electron pulse (black) along with a 600 fs Gaussian fit is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross correlation (circles) and simulation (dashed lines) results from pulses with various bunch charges accelerated to 70 kv. The focusing of the pulses results in an increased charge density towards the leading edge. The measurement of the 500 electron pulse demonstrates the impulse response of the measurement at 70 kV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulations comparing the charge density distribution(increasing from blue to red) of a 37500 electron pulse without (a) and with (b) focusing. The increasing charge density towards the leading edge of the focused pulse can be seen near R = 0. The white dotted line demonstrates what portion of the pulse interacted with cross correlation measurements. Note the difference in the transverse size of the two pulses.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The values of |ρ(t)|t2 remain relatively constant as the propagation time increases and the bunch charge is varied. ρ(t) is extracted from simulations using values of t calculated from the known propagation distance.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F = e 2 λ 2 8 π 2 m ε 0 c 3 I ,
S ( t ) = | X | D t ( X , Y ) d X d Y ,
τ 2 m ε 0 e ρ 0 ( l ) ,
| ρ ( t ) | 2 m ε 0 e t 2 ,

Metrics