Abstract

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) composed by a pair of long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in silica microfiber for sensing applications is demonstrated. Each LPG is fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser by creating six periodical deformations along fiber length with only one scanning cycle. The length of the MZI can reach as short as 8.84 mm when the diameter of the microfiber is 9.5 μm. Compared with the ones fabricated in single-mode fibers, the present MZI is much shorter owing to the large effective-index difference between the fundamental and higher order modes. The microfiber MZI exhibits a sensitivity to surrounding refractive index (RI) of 2225 nm per refractive index unit and the temperature sensitivity of only 11.7 pm/°C. Theoretical analysis suggests that the performances of the MZI sensor can be improved by using thinner microfibers with a diameter down to 3.5 μm: The sensitivity can be greatly enhanced due to the stronger evanescent-field interaction and reduced dispersion factor; the transmission dips become narrower which benefits high-resolution measurement; the thinner fiber also allows further reduction in device length. The present device has great potential in biochemical and medical sensing due to the advantages including easy fabrication, excellent compactness and high sensitivity.

© 2013 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express16(15), 11369–11375 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. J. Gu, “Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett.23(7), 509–510 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett.29(4), 346–348 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fibre grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(3), 343–345 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Kim, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Measurement of refractive-index variation with temperature by use of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett.27(15), 1297–1299 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Brambilla, “Optical fibre nanowires and microwires: a review,” J. Opt.12(4), 1–19 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fibrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(1), 107–161 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Li and L. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 303–305 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Li, L. P. Sun, S. Gao, Z. Quan, Y. L. Chang, Y. Ran, L. Jin, and B. O. Guan, “Ultrasensitive refractive-index sensors based on rectangular silica microfibers,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3593–3595 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Opt. Express17(24), 21882–21890 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Jin, W. Jin, J. Ju, and Y. Wang, “Coupled local-mode theory for strongly modulated long period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(12), 1745–1751 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun.164(1-3), 27–31 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(2), 255–266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt.38(16), 3450–3459 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express16(15), 11369–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and L. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 303–305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

1999 (3)

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt.38(16), 3450–3459 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun.164(1-3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fibre grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(3), 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, J.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun.164(1-3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Chang, Y. L.

Chen, Q.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Ding, J. F.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fibre grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(3), 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Fraser, J. M.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S.

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greig, P.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X. J.

Guan, B. O.

He, S.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horak, P.

Hwang, D.

Jang, H. S.

Jin, L.

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Jung, Y.

Kim, J. C.

Kim, Y. J.

Koizumi, F.

Koukharenko, E.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K. S.

Li, J.

Li, Y.

Lim, J. H.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun.164(1-3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H.-P.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Men, L.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Moon, S.

Murugan, G. S.

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L. V.

Nishii, J.

Oleschuk, R. D.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Quan, Z.

Ran, Y.

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Sessions, N. P.

Shao, L. Y.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

Sooley, K.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stegall, D. B.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fibre grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(3), 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L. P.

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun.164(1-3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Xuan, H.

Yam, S. S.-H.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. H.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun.164(1-3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H.-P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, “Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fibre grating devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(3), 343–345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1247–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. (1)

G. Brambilla, “Optical fibre nanowires and microwires: a review,” J. Opt.12(4), 1–19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun.164(1-3), 27–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(4), 1702–1705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics