Abstract

We directly visualize and identify the capacitive coupling of infrared dimer antennas in the near field by employing scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). The coupling is identified by (i) resolving the strongly enhanced nano-localized near fields in the antenna gap and by (ii) tracing the red shift of the dimer resonance when compared to the resonance of the single antenna constituents. Furthermore, by modifying the illumination geometry we break the symmetry, providing a means to excite both the bonding and the “dark” anti-bonding modes. By spectrally matching both modes, their interference yields an enhancement or suppression of the near fields at specific locations, which could be useful in nanoscale coherent control applications.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Polarization- controlled spatial localization of near-field energy in planar symmetric coupled oligomers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(1), 23–30 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

2011 (15)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Koh, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, D. W. McComb, S. A. Maier, and J. K. W. Yang, “High-resolution mapping of electron-beam-excited plasmon modes in lithographically defined gold nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1323–1330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W.-S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chuntonov and G. Haran, “Trimeric plasmonic molecules: the role of symmetry,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2440–2445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3888–3912 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Alber, W. Sigle, S. Müller, R. Neumann, O. Picht, M. Rauber, P. A. van Aken, and M. E. Toimil-Molares, “Visualization of multipolar longitudinal and transversal surface plasmon modes in nanowire dimers,” ACS Nano5(12), 9845–9853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, D. Dregely, M. Esslinger, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “Near-field dynamics of optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2819–2824 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and S. R. Leone, “Theta-shaped plasmonic nanostructures: bringing “dark” multipole plasmon resonances into action via conductive coupling,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1819–1825 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljkovic, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Kall, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Communications2(481), 1–6 (2011).

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (16)

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Slaughter, Y. Wu, B. A. Willingham, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “Effects of symmetry breaking and conductive contact on the plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(8), 4657–4666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shao, K. C. Woo, H. Chen, Z. Jin, J. Wang, and H.-Q. Lin, “Angle- and energy-resolved plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(6), 3053–3062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Huang, J. Kern, P. Geisler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2105–2110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, M.-X. Xu, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, J.-X. Cao, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Role of asymmetric environment on the dark mode excitation in metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency,” Opt. Express18(21), 22412–22417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. L. de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(213111), 1–3 (2010).

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

G. Volpe, S. Cherukulappurath, R. Juanola Parramon, G. Molina-Terriza, and R. Quidant, “Controlling the optical near field of nanoantennas with spatial phase-shaped beams,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3608–3611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, M. Savoini, J.-S. Huang, L. Dúo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Near-field polarization shaping by a near-resonant plasmonic cross antenna,” Phys. Rev. B80(153409), 1–4 (2009).

M. Schnell, A. Garcia Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(101124), 1–3 (2006).

2005 (3)

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(235420), 1–13 (2005).

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Coord. Chem. Rev.249(17-18), 1870–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. Radloff and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic properties of concentric nanoshells,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1323–1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett.4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abate, Y.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.-H.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. L. de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(213111), 1–3 (2010).

M. Schnell, A. Garcia Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(235420), 1–13 (2005).

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åkerman, J.

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albella, P.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alber, I.

I. Alber, W. Sigle, S. Müller, R. Neumann, O. Picht, M. Rauber, P. A. van Aken, and M. E. Toimil-Molares, “Visualization of multipolar longitudinal and transversal surface plasmon modes in nanowire dimers,” ACS Nano5(12), 9845–9853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
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M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apell, P.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arzubiaga, L.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biagioni, P.

J.-S. Huang, J. Kern, P. Geisler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2105–2110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, M. Savoini, J.-S. Huang, L. Dúo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Near-field polarization shaping by a near-resonant plasmonic cross antenna,” Phys. Rev. B80(153409), 1–4 (2009).

Bjerneld, E. J.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bochterle, J.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. L. de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(213111), 1–3 (2010).

Bonanni, V.

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonetti, S.

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boreman, G. D.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
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Börjesson, L.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. L. de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(213111), 1–3 (2010).

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(235420), 1–13 (2005).

Cabrini, S.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and S. R. Leone, “Theta-shaped plasmonic nanostructures: bringing “dark” multipole plasmon resonances into action via conductive coupling,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1819–1825 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, J.-X.

Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casanova, F.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.-S.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W.-S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
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Chen, H.

L. Shao, K. C. Woo, H. Chen, Z. Jin, J. Wang, and H.-Q. Lin, “Angle- and energy-resolved plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(6), 3053–3062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljkovic, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Kall, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Communications2(481), 1–6 (2011).

Cherukulappurath, S.

G. Volpe, S. Cherukulappurath, R. Juanola Parramon, G. Molina-Terriza, and R. Quidant, “Controlling the optical near field of nanoantennas with spatial phase-shaped beams,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3608–3611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuntonov, L.

L. Chuntonov and G. Haran, “Trimeric plasmonic molecules: the role of symmetry,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2440–2445 (2011).
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Cross, G. B.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

Crozier, K. B.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
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Davis, T. J.

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2618–2625 (2010).
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A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
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de la Chapelle, M. L.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. L. de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(213111), 1–3 (2010).

Dhuey, S.

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and S. R. Leone, “Theta-shaped plasmonic nanostructures: bringing “dark” multipole plasmon resonances into action via conductive coupling,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1819–1825 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dmitriev, A.

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, Z.-G.

Dorfmüller, J.

J. Dorfmüller, D. Dregely, M. Esslinger, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “Near-field dynamics of optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2819–2824 (2011).
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J. Dorfmüller, D. Dregely, M. Esslinger, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “Near-field dynamics of optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2819–2824 (2011).
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Dúo, L.

P. Biagioni, M. Savoini, J.-S. Huang, L. Dúo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Near-field polarization shaping by a near-resonant plasmonic cross antenna,” Phys. Rev. B80(153409), 1–4 (2009).

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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
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S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
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T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and S. R. Leone, “Theta-shaped plasmonic nanostructures: bringing “dark” multipole plasmon resonances into action via conductive coupling,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1819–1825 (2011).
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M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Polarization- controlled spatial localization of near-field energy in planar symmetric coupled oligomers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(1), 23–30 (2012).
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L. Shao, K. C. Woo, H. Chen, Z. Jin, J. Wang, and H.-Q. Lin, “Angle- and energy-resolved plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(6), 3053–3062 (2010).
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M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Polarization- controlled spatial localization of near-field energy in planar symmetric coupled oligomers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(1), 23–30 (2012).
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N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W.-S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
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L. S. Slaughter, Y. Wu, B. A. Willingham, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “Effects of symmetry breaking and conductive contact on the plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(8), 4657–4666 (2010).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Coord. Chem. Rev.249(17-18), 1870–1901 (2005).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Polarization- controlled spatial localization of near-field energy in planar symmetric coupled oligomers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(1), 23–30 (2012).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

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A. L. Koh, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, D. W. McComb, S. A. Maier, and J. K. W. Yang, “High-resolution mapping of electron-beam-excited plasmon modes in lithographically defined gold nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1323–1330 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljkovic, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Kall, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Communications2(481), 1–6 (2011).

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G. Volpe, S. Cherukulappurath, R. Juanola Parramon, G. Molina-Terriza, and R. Quidant, “Controlling the optical near field of nanoantennas with spatial phase-shaped beams,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3608–3611 (2009).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
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A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
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I. Alber, W. Sigle, S. Müller, R. Neumann, O. Picht, M. Rauber, P. A. van Aken, and M. E. Toimil-Molares, “Visualization of multipolar longitudinal and transversal surface plasmon modes in nanowire dimers,” ACS Nano5(12), 9845–9853 (2011).
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P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
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N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W.-S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Slaughter, Y. Wu, B. A. Willingham, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “Effects of symmetry breaking and conductive contact on the plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(8), 4657–4666 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
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S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
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N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
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L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 83–90 (2011).
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R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
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N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
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J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Coord. Chem. Rev.249(17-18), 1870–1901 (2005).
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J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Coord. Chem. Rev.249(17-18), 1870–1901 (2005).
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I. Alber, W. Sigle, S. Müller, R. Neumann, O. Picht, M. Rauber, P. A. van Aken, and M. E. Toimil-Molares, “Visualization of multipolar longitudinal and transversal surface plasmon modes in nanowire dimers,” ACS Nano5(12), 9845–9853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. L. de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(213111), 1–3 (2010).

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G. Volpe, S. Cherukulappurath, R. Juanola Parramon, G. Molina-Terriza, and R. Quidant, “Controlling the optical near field of nanoantennas with spatial phase-shaped beams,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3608–3611 (2009).
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P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(11), 116805 (2008).
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C. Radloff and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic properties of concentric nanoshells,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1323–1327 (2004).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Polarization- controlled spatial localization of near-field energy in planar symmetric coupled oligomers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(1), 23–30 (2012).
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Rang, M.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. Alber, W. Sigle, S. Müller, R. Neumann, O. Picht, M. Rauber, P. A. van Aken, and M. E. Toimil-Molares, “Visualization of multipolar longitudinal and transversal surface plasmon modes in nanowire dimers,” ACS Nano5(12), 9845–9853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(235420), 1–13 (2005).

Saliba, M.

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
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P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
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M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
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M. Schnell, A. Garcia Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
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S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and S. R. Leone, “Theta-shaped plasmonic nanostructures: bringing “dark” multipole plasmon resonances into action via conductive coupling,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1819–1825 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett.4(5), 957–961 (2004).
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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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L. Shao, K. C. Woo, H. Chen, Z. Jin, J. Wang, and H.-Q. Lin, “Angle- and energy-resolved plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(6), 3053–3062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shegai, T.

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljkovic, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Kall, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Communications2(481), 1–6 (2011).

Shen, H.

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C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 69–75 (2011).
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J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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L. S. Slaughter, Y. Wu, B. A. Willingham, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “Effects of symmetry breaking and conductive contact on the plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(8), 4657–4666 (2010).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Polarization- controlled spatial localization of near-field energy in planar symmetric coupled oligomers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(1), 23–30 (2012).
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T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2618–2625 (2010).
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J.-S. Huang, J. Kern, P. Geisler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2105–2110 (2010).
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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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L. Shao, K. C. Woo, H. Chen, Z. Jin, J. Wang, and H.-Q. Lin, “Angle- and energy-resolved plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(6), 3053–3062 (2010).
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C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 69–75 (2011).
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D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
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T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljkovic, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Kall, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Communications2(481), 1–6 (2011).

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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 047401 (2008).
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ACS Nano (3)

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L. S. Slaughter, Y. Wu, B. A. Willingham, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “Effects of symmetry breaking and conductive contact on the plasmon coupling in gold nanorod dimers,” ACS Nano4(8), 4657–4666 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Mastel, S. E. Grefe, G. B. Cross, A. Taber, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and Y. Abate, “Real-space mapping of nanoplasmonic hotspots via optical antenna-gap loading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(131102), 1–4 (2012).

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(101124), 1–3 (2006).

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. L. de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(213111), 1–3 (2010).

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Polarization- controlled spatial localization of near-field energy in planar symmetric coupled oligomers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.107(1), 23–30 (2012).
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Chem. Rev. (2)

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M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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C. Radloff and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic properties of concentric nanoshells,” Nano Lett.4(7), 1323–1327 (2004).
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T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Schnell, P. Sarriugarte, H. Sobhani, C. Wu, N. Arju, A. Khanikaev, F. Golmar, P. Albella, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Real-space mapping of Fano interference in plasmonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3922–3926 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
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M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
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J. Dorfmüller, D. Dregely, M. Esslinger, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “Near-field dynamics of optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2819–2824 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett.4(5), 957–961 (2004).
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T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, and S. R. Leone, “Theta-shaped plasmonic nanostructures: bringing “dark” multipole plasmon resonances into action via conductive coupling,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1819–1825 (2011).
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J.-S. Huang, J. Kern, P. Geisler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2105–2110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett.9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Koh, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, D. W. McComb, S. A. Maier, and J. K. W. Yang, “High-resolution mapping of electron-beam-excited plasmon modes in lithographically defined gold nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1323–1330 (2011).
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G. Volpe, S. Cherukulappurath, R. Juanola Parramon, G. Molina-Terriza, and R. Quidant, “Controlling the optical near field of nanoantennas with spatial phase-shaped beams,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3608–3611 (2009).
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Nat. Communications (2)

P. Alonso-González, P. Albella, M. Schnell, J. Chen, F. Huth, A. García-Etxarri, F. Casanova, F. Golmar, L. Arzubiaga, L. E. Hueso, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots,” Nat. Communications3(684), 1–7 (2012).

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljkovic, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Kall, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Communications2(481), 1–6 (2011).

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 69–75 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 83–90 (2011).
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M. Schnell, A. Garcia Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 287–291 (2009).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Biagioni, M. Savoini, J.-S. Huang, L. Dúo, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, “Near-field polarization shaping by a near-resonant plasmonic cross antenna,” Phys. Rev. B80(153409), 1–4 (2009).

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(235420), 1–13 (2005).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(16), 167403 (2010).
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P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(11), 116805 (2008).
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N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(25), 253903 (2008).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (6)

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
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Small (1)

J. Chen, P. Albella, Z. Pirzadeh, P. Alonso-González, F. Huth, S. Bonetti, V. Bonanni, J. Åkerman, J. Nogués, P. Vavassori, A. Dmitriev, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Plasmonic nickel nanoantennas,” Small7(16), 2341–2347 (2011).
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M. Rahmani, B. Luk'yanchuk, and M. Hong, “Fano resonance in novel plasmonic nanostructures,” Laser & Photon. Rev. doi: 10.1002/lpor.201200021 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up and near-field imaging. (a) Illustration of the s-SNOM used for mapping the near-field distribution and topography of infrared dimers. The Si tip, which vibrates at the mechanical resonance frequency Ω of the AFM cantilever, is used to scatter the antenna fields. Using a parabolic mirror objective, the dimer is illuminated with the focused beam of a CO2 laser (Einc), which is polarized parallel to the long axis of the antennas (s-polarization). The same objective is used to collect the backscattered light (Eff). A polarizer in front of the detector ensures the selection of either s-polarized or p-polarized backscattered fields. Signal demodulation at higher harmonics nΩ in combination with a pseudo-heterodyne interferometric detection yields background-free near-field amplitude |En| and phase φn maps [50]. (b) Topography and near-field images of a dimer antenna for (c) p-polarization (|E4|p, φ4p) and (d) s-polarization (|E4|s, φ4s) detection schemes. The imaging wavelength is λinc = 11.1 μm. The dashed white line in the phase images highlight the nanorods contour.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of energy levels as a function of nanorod length L for dimer antennas and single nanorods. At a fixed illumination wavelength λinc (red dashed line) the lower energy bonding mode in a dimer antenna (red) occurs at a shorter nanorod length L1 than the fundamental.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

s-SNOM imaging of dimer antennas. (a) Schematics of the s-SNOM experiment. The longitudinal axis of the antennas is parallel to the incident polarization. (b) Topography, (c) near-field amplitude |E4|s and (d) phase φ4s images of dimer antennas taken at λinc = 11.1 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Verification of near-field coupling in dimer antennas. (a) Near-field amplitude |E4|s and (b) phase φ4s images of dimer antennas with a varying length L. The horizontal white lines separate the images taken individually. (c) Comparison of the normalized near-field amplitude E 4s in dimer antennas (red dots) and single nanorods (blue dots) as a function of nanorod length L. (d) Comparison of the near-field phase φ4s/2 in dimer antennas (red dots) and single nanorods (blue dots, data from ref [49].) as a function of nanorod length L. The crosses in the antenna schematics show the locations were the fields were evaluated: the center of the gap for the dimers and the nanorod extremity for the single nanorods. Numerical calculations by FDTD of the in-plane component of the antennas’s near-field amplitude and phase are also shown in (c) and (d) by red (dimers) and blue (single nanorods) solid lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagram of energy levels as a function of nanorod length L for the bonding and anti-bonding modes in dimer antennas. At a fixed illumination wavelength λinc (black dashed line) the lower energy bonding mode in a dimer antenna (parallel red arrows) occurs at a shorter length LA than the higher energy anti-bonding mode (anti-parallel blue arrows) at LB. The graphs display schematic near-field amplitude and phase spectra of the bonding (red) and anti-bonding (blue) modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

s-SNOM imaging of 20°-rotated dimer antennas. (a) Schematics of the s-SNOM experiment. The dimer antennas are rotated in-plane by 20°. (b) Topography, and (c) near-field amplitude |E3|p and (d) phase φ3p images of dimer antennas with a varying length L ranging from 2.7 μm to 4.8 μm. The horizontal white lines separate the images taken individually.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Interference of modes in rotated dimer antennas. (a) Experimental (|E3|p, φ3p) and calculated out-of-plane near-field amplitude and phase images for a nanorod length LA = 2.7 μm and (b) a nanorod length LB = 3.8 μm. (c) Numerically calculated values of the near-field amplitude and (d) phase of the out-of-plane near-field component at the left/right side of the gap (red/blue curve). The red and blue crosses mark the positions at 300 nm from the gap on top of the antennas where the near-field amplitude and phase were extracted from the near-field images. For comparison the near-field amplitude and phase for non-rotated antennas (grey curves) evaluated at the same location are also shown.

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