Abstract

Optical nanoantennas, especially of the dipole type, have been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by many research groups. Likewise, the plasmonic waveguides and optical circuits have experienced significant advances. In radio frequencies and microwaves a category of antenna known as dielectric resonator antenna (DRA), whose radiant element is a dielectric resonator (DR), has been designed for several applications, including satellite and radar systems. In this letter, we explore the possibilities and advantages to design nano DRAs (NDRAs), i. e., DRAs for nanophotonics applications. Numerical demonstrations showing the fundamental antenna parameters for a circular cylindrical NDRA type have been carried out for the short (S), conventional (C), and long (L) bands of the optical communication spectrum.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yousefi and A. C. Foster, “Waveguide-fed optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna,” Opt. Express20(16), 18326–18335 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

Y. Zhao, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Effects of shape and loading of optical nanoantennas on their sensitivity and radiation properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(5), 1266–1274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Iizuka, N. Engheta, H. Fujikawa, and K. Sato, “Arm-edge conditions in plasmonic folded dipole nanoantennas,” Opt. Express19(13), 12325–12335 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, X. Chen, D. S. Espinoza, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “Nanoscale Optical Dielectric Rod Antenna for On-Chip Interconnecting Networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(10), 2624–2632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

S. A. Choulis, M. K. Mathai, and V.-E. Choong, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of organic electrophosphorescence devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(21), 213503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Mertens, J. S. Biteen, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Polarization-Selective Plasmon-Enhanced Silicon Quantum-Dot Luminescence,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2622–2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas—a review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Computer-Aided Engineering4(3), 230–247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

J. R. Carson, “Reciprocal Theorems in Radio Communication,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng.17, 952–956 (1929).

Alonso-González, P.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Effects of shape and loading of optical nanoantennas on their sensitivity and radiation properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(5), 1266–1274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. Mertens, J. S. Biteen, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Polarization-Selective Plasmon-Enhanced Silicon Quantum-Dot Luminescence,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2622–2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banzer, P.

J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P.

R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas—a review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Computer-Aided Engineering4(3), 230–247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance Matching and Emission Properties of Nanoantennas in an Optical Nanocircuit,” Nano Lett.9(5), 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biteen, J. S.

H. Mertens, J. S. Biteen, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Polarization-Selective Plasmon-Enhanced Silicon Quantum-Dot Luminescence,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2622–2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bomstad, I.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Bravo, D.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carson, J. R.

J. R. Carson, “Reciprocal Theorems in Radio Communication,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng.17, 952–956 (1929).

Casanova, F.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caserta, J.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Chen, X.

H. Zhou, X. Chen, D. S. Espinoza, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “Nanoscale Optical Dielectric Rod Antenna for On-Chip Interconnecting Networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(10), 2624–2632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V.-E.

S. A. Choulis, M. K. Mathai, and V.-E. Choong, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of organic electrophosphorescence devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(21), 213503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

S. A. Choulis, M. K. Mathai, and V.-E. Choong, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of organic electrophosphorescence devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(21), 213503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chuvilin, A.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, T. O.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

Espinoza, D. S.

H. Zhou, X. Chen, D. S. Espinoza, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “Nanoscale Optical Dielectric Rod Antenna for On-Chip Interconnecting Networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(10), 2624–2632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feichtner, T.

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance Matching and Emission Properties of Nanoantennas in an Optical Nanocircuit,” Nano Lett.9(5), 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filipovic, D. S.

H. Zhou, X. Chen, D. S. Espinoza, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “Nanoscale Optical Dielectric Rod Antenna for On-Chip Interconnecting Networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(10), 2624–2632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, Z. Li, L. Shang, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “On-Chip Wireless Optical Broadcast Interconnection Network,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3569–3577 (2010).

Floyd, B. A.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Foster, A. C.

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujikawa, H.

Guo, X.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance Matching and Emission Properties of Nanoantennas in an Optical Nanocircuit,” Nano Lett.9(5), 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

Huang, J.-S.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance Matching and Emission Properties of Nanoantennas in an Optical Nanocircuit,” Nano Lett.9(5), 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hueso, L. E.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C.-M.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Iizuka, H.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinzel, E. C.

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kriesch, A.

J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Li, Z.

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massoud, Y.

Mathai, M. K.

S. A. Choulis, M. K. Mathai, and V.-E. Choong, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of organic electrophosphorescence devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(21), 213503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, J. L.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Mertens, H.

H. Mertens, J. S. Biteen, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Polarization-Selective Plasmon-Enhanced Silicon Quantum-Dot Luminescence,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2622–2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mickelson, A.

H. Zhou, X. Chen, D. S. Espinoza, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “Nanoscale Optical Dielectric Rod Antenna for On-Chip Interconnecting Networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(10), 2624–2632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, Z. Li, L. Shang, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “On-Chip Wireless Optical Broadcast Interconnection Network,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3569–3577 (2010).

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mongia, R. K.

R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas—a review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Computer-Aided Engineering4(3), 230–247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nejati, H.

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschel, U.

J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wen, S. Romanov, and U. Peschel, “Excitation of plasmonic gap waveguides by nanoantennas,” Opt. Express17(8), 5925–5932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ploss, D.

J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

H. Mertens, J. S. Biteen, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Polarization-Selective Plasmon-Enhanced Silicon Quantum-Dot Luminescence,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2622–2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanov, S.

Sato, K.

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmauss, B.

J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, L.

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trichy, N.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wen, S. Romanov, and U. Peschel, “Excitation of plasmonic gap waveguides by nanoantennas,” Opt. Express17(8), 5925–5932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Yoon, H.

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

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H. Zhou, X. Chen, D. S. Espinoza, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “Nanoscale Optical Dielectric Rod Antenna for On-Chip Interconnecting Networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(10), 2624–2632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Wen, P. Banzer, A. Kriesch, D. Ploss, B. Schmauss, and U. Peschel, “Experimental cross-polarization detection of coupling far-field light to highly confined plasmonic gap modes via nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

K. K. O, K. Kim, B. A. Floyd, J. L. Mehta, H. Yoon, C.-M. Hung, D. Bravo, T. O. Dickson, X. Guo, R. Li, N. Trichy, J. Caserta, and I. Bomstad, “On-chip antennas in silicon ICs and their application,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.52, 1312–1323 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

H. Zhou, X. Chen, D. S. Espinoza, A. Mickelson, and D. S. Filipovic, “Nanoscale Optical Dielectric Rod Antenna for On-Chip Interconnecting Networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(10), 2624–2632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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H. Mertens, J. S. Biteen, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Polarization-Selective Plasmon-Enhanced Silicon Quantum-Dot Luminescence,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2622–2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance Matching and Emission Properties of Nanoantennas in an Optical Nanocircuit,” Nano Lett.9(5), 1897–1902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the Mismatch between Light and Nanoscale Objects with Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(1), 017402 (2005).
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Science (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant Optical Antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).

A. A. Kishk and Y. M. M. Antar, “Dielectric Resonator Antennas,” in Antenna Engineering Handbook, John L. Volakis, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007).

A. Petosa, Dielectric Resonator Antennas Handbook (Artech House, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Views of the NDRA. (a) NDRA perspective view: the propagation vector, k , depicts the optical power flowing along the y direction through the nanostrip and being transferred to the DR end from it being orthogonally radiated to free space (assuming the Tx mode). (b) NDRA top view: magnetic field lines showing the coupling compatibility between the fundamental nanostrip mode and the DR’s HE11δ mode. (c) NDRA lateral view: the layers present in the NDRA feeding geometry and their respective thickness parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Effective index versus nanostrip substrate’s thickness. Electric field vectors (in white) of the DR’s HE11δ mode: (b) top and (c) lateral cross-section views.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-section views of electric and magnetic field modulus (in decibel scale). (a) magnetic field between nanostrip and ground plane, and (b) magnetic field modulus at NDRA’s half height. Vertical cross-sections of the NDRA showing the electric field modulus dynamic behavior at 193.5THz related to y-component phase variation of (c) 0°, (d) 45°, and (e) 90°. The dashed line in each inset represents the plane of observation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fundamental parameters of the antenna depicted in Fig. 1. (a) Return loss, S11, in red solid line and gain curves in dark-blue solid line. (b) 3-D radiation pattern at 193.5THz (1.55µm) with broadside behavior.

Equations (1)

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f= 6.324c 2πa ε r +2 [ 0.27+0.36( d 2h )+0.002 ( d 2h ) 2 ].

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