Abstract

We demonstrate sidewall gratings in an ultra-low-loss Si3N4 planar waveguide platform. Through proper geometrical design we can achieve coupling constant values between 13 and 310 cm−1. The TE waveguide propagation loss over the range of 1540 to 1570 nm is below 5.5 dB/m.

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  1. L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(12), 988–999 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azaña, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: an improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(6), 694–696 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. N. Nguyen, P. J. Skahan, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Monolithically integrated dual-quadrature receiver on InP with 30 nm tunable local oscillator,” Opt. Express19(26), B716–B721 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(6), 2753–2757 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Lin, J. R. Adleman, E. W. Jacobs, J. S. Rodgers, R. Liang, T. Chen, and A. Fitting, “Higher order planar-waveguide Bragg grating on curved waveguide,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Photonics Conference, (Arlington, VA, 2011).
  10. T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-refection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(12), 1938–1942 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communication (Oxford, 2007), Chap. 12.
  13. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012), Chap. 6.
  14. K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2009

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(6), 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(12), 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azaña, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: an improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(6), 694–696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Azaña, J.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azaña, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: an improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(6), 694–696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baney, D. M.

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Bernhardi, E. H.

E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bowers, J. E.

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruinink, C. M.

Capmany, J.

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carballar, A.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azaña, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: an improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(6), 694–696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. M.

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. Y.

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(12), 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, R. M.

E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di Liang, O.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fonstad, C. G.

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. M.

Goodberlet, J. G.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(6), 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hastings, J. T.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(6), 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-refection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(12), 1938–1942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

John, D. D.

Jones, R.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B. R.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leinse, A.

Lim, M. H.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(6), 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lively, E.

K. N. Nguyen, P. J. Skahan, J. M. Garcia, E. Lively, H. N. Poulsen, D. M. Baney, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Monolithically integrated dual-quadrature receiver on InP with 30 nm tunable local oscillator,” Opt. Express19(26), B716–B721 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muriel, M. A.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azaña, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: an improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(6), 694–696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

Nguyen, K. N.

Ortega, D.

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

Raday,

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skahan, P. J.

Smith, H. I.

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(6), 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-refection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(12), 1938–1942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sysak, M. N.

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tatay, V.

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Wolferen, H. A. G. M.

E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wong, V. V.

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wörhoff, K.

E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ying-Hao Kuo,

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(12), 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, M. N. Sysak, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Ying-Hao Kuo, O. Di Liang, Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “Single-wavelength silicon evanescent lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azaña, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: an improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(6), 694–696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-refection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(12), 1938–1942 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(11), 2581–2588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

V. V. Wong, W. Y. Choi, J. M. Carter, C. G. Fonstad, H. I. Smith, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Ridge-waveguide sidewall-grating distributed feedback structures fabricated by x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6), 2621–2624 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(6), 2753–2757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications

E. H. Bernhardi, Q. Lu, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, and M. Pollnau, “Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106,” Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications9(3), 225–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Lin, J. R. Adleman, E. W. Jacobs, J. S. Rodgers, R. Liang, T. Chen, and A. Fitting, “Higher order planar-waveguide Bragg grating on curved waveguide,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Photonics Conference, (Arlington, VA, 2011).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communication (Oxford, 2007), Chap. 12.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012), Chap. 6.

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