Abstract

We study electroabsorption (EA) behavior of InGaN/GaN quantum structures grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) in correlation with their dislocation density levels and in comparison to steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The results reveal that ELOG structures with decreasing mask stripe widths exhibit stronger EA performance, with a maximum EA enhancement factor of 4.8 compared to the reference without ELOG. The analyses show that the EA performance follows similar trends with decreasing dislocation density as the essential parameters of the photoluminescence spectra (peak position, width and intensity) together with the photoluminescence lifetimes. While keeping the growth window widths constant, compared to photoluminescence behavior, however, EA surprisingly exhibits the largest performance variation, making EA the most sensitive to the mask stripe widths.

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2011 (3)

2010 (4)

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Cho, J.-B. Lee, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO2.,” Opt. Express18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, C. Z. Liao, and S. Chao, “MQWs InGaN/GaN LED with embedded micro-mirror array in the epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth gallium nitride for light extraction enhancement,” Opt. Express18(10), 10674–10684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-L. Lu, Y.-R. Wu, and J. Singh, “A study of the role of dislocation density, indium composition on the radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN polar and nonpolar light-emitting diodes using drift-diffusion coupled with a Monte Carlo method,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN,” Appl. Phys. B95(2), 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnston, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Defect reduction in (11-22) semipolar GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using ScN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, “Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems,” Proc. SPIE6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. M. Imer, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Improved quality (11-20) a-plane GaN with sidewall lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

I. Friel, C. Thomidis, and T. D. Moustakas, “Ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 123515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

1998 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

S. P. Denbaars, “Gallium-nitride-based materials for blue to ultraviolet optoelectronics devices,” Proc. IEEE85(11), 1740–1749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Usui, H. Sunakawa, A. Sakai, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Thick GaN epitaxial growth with low dislocation density by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 7B), L899–L902 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abou-Galala, F.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, “Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems,” Proc. SPIE6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B.-J.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-H.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banas, M. A.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, C.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN,” Appl. Phys. B95(2), 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhatnagar, A.

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Chang, K. H.

Chao, S.

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, “Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems,” Proc. SPIE6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-Y.

Chocho, K.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Debaes, C.

Demir, H. V.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, “Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting,” Opt. Express12(2), 310–316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

B. M. Imer, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Improved quality (11-20) a-plane GaN with sidewall lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Denbaars, “Gallium-nitride-based materials for blue to ultraviolet optoelectronics devices,” Proc. IEEE85(11), 1740–1749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Fidaner, O.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, “Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting,” Opt. Express12(2), 310–316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Friel, I.

I. Friel, C. Thomidis, and T. D. Moustakas, “Ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 123515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

P. Gibart, “Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67(5), 667–715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-H.

Harris, J. S.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, “Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting,” Opt. Express12(2), 310–316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. Y.

Huang, F. W.

Huang, H. H.

Huang, J. J.

Huang, Y. Y.

Humphreys, C. J.

C. F. Johnston, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Defect reduction in (11-22) semipolar GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using ScN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Imer, B. M.

B. M. Imer, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Improved quality (11-20) a-plane GaN with sidewall lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, C. F.

C. F. Johnston, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Defect reduction in (11-22) semipolar GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using ScN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

C. F. Johnston, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Defect reduction in (11-22) semipolar GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using ScN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-J.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, S.-M.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ku, H. M.

Lai, W. C.

Latif, S.

Lee, I.-H.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-B.

Lee, K.-H.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

Lee, S. R.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

Leonardi, M.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, “Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems,” Proc. SPIE6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. Z.

Liu, G.

Lu, I.-L.

I.-L. Lu, Y.-R. Wu, and J. Singh, “A study of the role of dislocation density, indium composition on the radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN polar and nonpolar light-emitting diodes using drift-diffusion coupled with a Monte Carlo method,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClintock, R.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN,” Appl. Phys. B95(2), 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, “Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting,” Opt. Express12(2), 310–316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bhatnagar, S. Latif, C. Debaes, and D. A. B. Miller, “Pump-probe measurements of CMOS detector rise time in the blue,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(9), 2213–2217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

C. F. Johnston, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Defect reduction in (11-22) semipolar GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using ScN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

I. Friel, C. Thomidis, and T. D. Moustakas, “Ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 123515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nizamoglu, S.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, H. S.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

Park, T.-Y.

Pau, J. L.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN,” Appl. Phys. B95(2), 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Razeghi, M.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN,” Appl. Phys. B95(2), 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V. A.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, “Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting,” Opt. Express12(2), 310–316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, A.

A. Usui, H. Sunakawa, A. Sakai, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Thick GaN epitaxial growth with low dislocation density by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 7B), L899–L902 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sari, E.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Singh, J.

I.-L. Lu, Y.-R. Wu, and J. Singh, “A study of the role of dislocation density, indium composition on the radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN polar and nonpolar light-emitting diodes using drift-diffusion coupled with a Monte Carlo method,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-H.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

B. M. Imer, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Improved quality (11-20) a-plane GaN with sidewall lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sunakawa, H.

A. Usui, H. Sunakawa, A. Sakai, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Thick GaN epitaxial growth with low dislocation density by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 7B), L899–L902 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Thaler, G.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomidis, C.

I. Friel, C. Thomidis, and T. D. Moustakas, “Ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 123515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

Umemoto, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Usui, A.

A. Usui, H. Sunakawa, A. Sakai, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Thick GaN epitaxial growth with low dislocation density by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 7B), L899–L902 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

B. M. Imer, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Improved quality (11-20) a-plane GaN with sidewall lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. R.

Wu, Y.-R.

I.-L. Lu, Y.-R. Wu, and J. Singh, “A study of the role of dislocation density, indium composition on the radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN polar and nonpolar light-emitting diodes using drift-diffusion coupled with a Monte Carlo method,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, “Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems,” Proc. SPIE6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A. A.

A. Usui, H. Sunakawa, A. Sakai, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Thick GaN epitaxial growth with low dislocation density by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 7B), L899–L902 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

Yanqun, D.

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. H.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, H.

Zheng, J.-F.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, “Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting,” Opt. Express12(2), 310–316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN,” Appl. Phys. B95(2), 307–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(2), 211–213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnston, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Defect reduction in (11-22) semipolar GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using ScN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Imer, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Improved quality (11-20) a-plane GaN with sidewall lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

S.-M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K.-H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J.-H. Song, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J.-H. Song, “Effects of patterned sapphire substrates on piezoelectric field in blue-emitting InGaN multiple quantum wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J.-F. Zheng, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Multifunctional integrated photonic switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 86–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

I.-L. Lu, Y.-R. Wu, and J. Singh, “A study of the role of dislocation density, indium composition on the radiative efficiency in InGaN/GaN polar and nonpolar light-emitting diodes using drift-diffusion coupled with a Monte Carlo method,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Friel, C. Thomidis, and T. D. Moustakas, “Ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 123515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Usui, H. Sunakawa, A. Sakai, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Thick GaN epitaxial growth with low dislocation density by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 7B), L899–L902 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

C.-Y. Cho, J.-B. Lee, S.-J. Lee, S.-H. Han, T.-Y. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Improvement of light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by lateral epitaxial overgrowth using pyramidal-shaped SiO2.,” Opt. Express18(2), 1462–1468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, C. Z. Liao, and S. Chao, “MQWs InGaN/GaN LED with embedded micro-mirror array in the epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth gallium nitride for light extraction enhancement,” Opt. Express18(10), 10674–10684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, “Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting,” Opt. Express12(2), 310–316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Tu, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, K. H. Chang, Y. H. Yeh, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells,” Opt. Express19(13), 12719–12726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well Structures,” Phys. Rev. B32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. P. Denbaars, “Gallium-nitride-based materials for blue to ultraviolet optoelectronics devices,” Proc. IEEE85(11), 1740–1749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, “Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems,” Proc. SPIE6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Gibart, “Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67(5), 667–715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative parts of the analyzed scanning electron microscopy images of the top surface of our epi-structures after etch pit formation: (a) reference sample, and ELOG samples with (b) 4 µm, (c) 7 µm, and (d) 10 µm wide stripes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra of (a) reference sample, and ELOG samples with (b) 4 µm, (c) 7 µm and (d) 10 µm wide stripes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved photoluminescence decay profiles of our epitaxial lateral overgrowth structures and the reference sample along with their corresponding fits. The fastest decay profile corresponds to the reference sample due to its higher dislocation density, and thus higher nonradiative recombination rate. The instrument response function (IRF) is denoted by the black decay curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of (a) dislocation densities measured by SEM analysis and (b) recombination rates of our structures measured by TRPL analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of trends in (a) PL peak wavelengths and (b) maximum photocurrent change (electroabsorption) wavelengths; (c) PL peak FWHMs and (d) electroabsorption FWHMs; and (d) PL peak intensities and (e) maximum photocurrent changes among our structures.

Metrics