Abstract

We investigated the near infrared enhancement in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)- based solar cells utilizing a hydrogen-doping ZnO (ZnO:H) window layer. The results show that the carrier concentration of ZnO:H film is lower than that of AZO film which can increase the transmittance in the NIR. The advantage of ZnO:H film is higher Hall mobility than AZO film. Thus ZnO:H film has similar resistivity to AZO film. It was found that the cell efficiency was 12.4 and 13% for the AZO device and the ZnO:H device, respectively. The cell efficiency is enhanced by 4.8%. Furthermore, the results indicate that, the ZnO:H film is superior to the AZO film as the window layer for CIGS-based solar cells.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Hagiwara, T. Nakada, and A. Kunioka, “Improved Jsc in CIGS thin film solar cells using a transparent conducting ZnO:B window layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 267–271 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Sang, K. Kushiya, D. Okumura, and O. Yamase, “Performance improvement of CIGS-based modules by depositing high-quality Ga-doped ZnO windows with magnetron sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 237–245 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Menner, D. Hariskos, V. Linss, and M. Powalla, “Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7541–7544 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions,” Nature 423(6940), 626–628 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. R. Park, J. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effect of hydrogen doping in ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(22), 9010–9014 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).
  13. H. J. Lin, S. H. Chen, H. W. Wang, T. W. Zhang, C. C. Lee, and C. Y. Cheng, “Hydrogen concentration in hydrogenated silicon thin films using elastic recoil detection,” presented at the 19th International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, Jeju, Korea, 9–13 Nov. 2009.
  14. F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. A. Martínez, J. Herrero, and M. T. Gutierrez, “Deposition of transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films for photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45(1), 75–86 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. Menner, D. Hariskos, V. Linss, and M. Powalla, “Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7541–7544 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).

2009 (1)

Y. R. Park, J. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effect of hydrogen doping in ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(22), 9010–9014 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions,” Nature 423(6940), 626–628 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

Y. Hagiwara, T. Nakada, and A. Kunioka, “Improved Jsc in CIGS thin film solar cells using a transparent conducting ZnO:B window layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 267–271 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Sang, K. Kushiya, D. Okumura, and O. Yamase, “Performance improvement of CIGS-based modules by depositing high-quality Ga-doped ZnO windows with magnetron sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 237–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. A. Martínez, J. Herrero, and M. T. Gutierrez, “Deposition of transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films for photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45(1), 75–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Akimoto, K.

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. Y.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. H.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. H.

C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).

Chen, W. H.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chi, G. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cooray, N. F.

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, K.

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujimaki, A.

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gutierrez, M. T.

M. A. Martínez, J. Herrero, and M. T. Gutierrez, “Deposition of transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films for photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45(1), 75–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hagiwara, Y.

Y. Hagiwara, T. Nakada, and A. Kunioka, “Improved Jsc in CIGS thin film solar cells using a transparent conducting ZnO:B window layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 267–271 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hariskos, D.

R. Menner, D. Hariskos, V. Linss, and M. Powalla, “Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7541–7544 (2011).
[Crossref]

Herrero, J.

M. A. Martínez, J. Herrero, and M. T. Gutierrez, “Deposition of transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films for photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45(1), 75–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hong, F. C. N.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ishizuka, S.

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Islam, M. M.

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y. R. Park, J. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effect of hydrogen doping in ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(22), 9010–9014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. R. Park, J. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effect of hydrogen doping in ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(22), 9010–9014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kunioka, A.

Y. Hagiwara, T. Nakada, and A. Kunioka, “Improved Jsc in CIGS thin film solar cells using a transparent conducting ZnO:B window layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 267–271 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. C.

C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).

Kuo, C. H.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kushiya, K.

B. Sang, K. Kushiya, D. Okumura, and O. Yamase, “Performance improvement of CIGS-based modules by depositing high-quality Ga-doped ZnO windows with magnetron sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 237–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, W. T.

C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).

Linss, V.

R. Menner, D. Hariskos, V. Linss, and M. Powalla, “Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7541–7544 (2011).
[Crossref]

Martínez, M. A.

M. A. Martínez, J. Herrero, and M. T. Gutierrez, “Deposition of transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films for photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45(1), 75–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, K.

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Menner, R.

R. Menner, D. Hariskos, V. Linss, and M. Powalla, “Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7541–7544 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miura, T.

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nakada, T.

Y. Hagiwara, T. Nakada, and A. Kunioka, “Improved Jsc in CIGS thin film solar cells using a transparent conducting ZnO:B window layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 267–271 (2001).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, J.

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions,” Nature 423(6940), 626–628 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niki, S.

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Okumura, D.

B. Sang, K. Kushiya, D. Okumura, and O. Yamase, “Performance improvement of CIGS-based modules by depositing high-quality Ga-doped ZnO windows with magnetron sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 237–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ooshita, M.

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. R.

Y. R. Park, J. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effect of hydrogen doping in ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(22), 9010–9014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Powalla, M.

R. Menner, D. Hariskos, V. Linss, and M. Powalla, “Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7541–7544 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rix, R.

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ruske, F.

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sakurai, T.

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sang, B.

B. Sang, K. Kushiya, D. Okumura, and O. Yamase, “Performance improvement of CIGS-based modules by depositing high-quality Ga-doped ZnO windows with magnetron sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 237–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sato, M.

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shu, K. W.

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sittinger, V.

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, I.

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Szyszka, B.

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S. Z.

C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).

Tun, C. J.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions,” Nature 423(6940), 626–628 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Osten, K.-U.

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

Werner, W.

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, A.

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamase, O.

B. Sang, K. Kushiya, D. Okumura, and O. Yamase, “Performance improvement of CIGS-based modules by depositing high-quality Ga-doped ZnO windows with magnetron sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 237–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
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Yeh, C. L.

C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

M. M. Islam, S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, T. Sakurai, and K. Akimoto, “Thickness study of Al:ZnO film for application as a window layer in Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(9), 4026–4030 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Park, J. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effect of hydrogen doping in ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(22), 9010–9014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (2)

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. L. Yeh, S. Z. Tseng, W. T. Lin, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, “Thermal stability of hydrogen-doped zinc-oxide thin-films,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H1–H3 (2011).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. K. Sheu, K. W. Shu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, and G. C. Chi, “Effect of thermal annealing on Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(6), H521–H524 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions,” Nature 423(6940), 626–628 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

N. F. Cooray, K. Kushiya, A. Fujimaki, I. Sugiyama, T. Miura, D. Okumura, M. Sato, M. Ooshita, and O. Yamase, “Large area ZnO films optimized for graded band-gap Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film mini-modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 49(1-4), 291–297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. Hagiwara, T. Nakada, and A. Kunioka, “Improved Jsc in CIGS thin film solar cells using a transparent conducting ZnO:B window layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 267–271 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Sang, K. Kushiya, D. Okumura, and O. Yamase, “Performance improvement of CIGS-based modules by depositing high-quality Ga-doped ZnO windows with magnetron sputtering,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 237–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. A. Martínez, J. Herrero, and M. T. Gutierrez, “Deposition of transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films for photovoltaic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45(1), 75–86 (1997).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

F. Ruske, V. Sittinger, W. Werner, B. Szyszka, K.-U. van Osten, K. Dietrich, and R. Rix, “Hydrogen doping of DC sputtered ZnO:Al films from novel target material,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 236–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Menner, D. Hariskos, V. Linss, and M. Powalla, “Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7541–7544 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. J. Lin, S. H. Chen, H. W. Wang, T. W. Zhang, C. C. Lee, and C. Y. Cheng, “Hydrogen concentration in hydrogenated silicon thin films using elastic recoil detection,” presented at the 19th International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, Jeju, Korea, 9–13 Nov. 2009.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electrical properties of ZnO:H films under the different hydrogen flow ratios.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction patterns of ZnO:H films as a function of hydrogen flow ratios.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmission spectra of ZnO:H films varied with hydrogen flow ratio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of the CIGS-based solar cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical transmission spectra of different thicknesses of the AZO and ZnO:H films

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

J-V characteristics of the CIGS solar cell fabricated using AZO and ZnO:H window layers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

External quantum efficiency curves of the CIGS solar cell fabricated using AZO and ZnO:H window layers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical Properties of the AZO and ZnO:H Films

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