Abstract

We present an efficient vertical InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) in which the proposed vertical LEDs were fabricated with patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) using thinning techniques. After the thinning of sapphire substrate, selective dry etching process was performed on the remainder sapphire layer to expose the n-GaN contact layer instead of removing the sapphire substrate using the laser lift-off technique. These processes feature the LEDs with a sapphire-face-up structure and vertical conduction property. The PSS was adopted as a growth substrate to mitigate the light-guided effect, and thereby increase the light-extraction efficiency. Compared with conventional lateral GaN LEDs grown on PSS, the proposed vertical LEDs exhibit a higher light output power and less power degradation at a high driving current. This could be attributed to the fact that the vertical LEDs behave in a manner similar to flip-chip GaN/sapphire LEDs with excellent heat conduction.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diode, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006) pp. 150–160.
  2. W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).
  4. D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. C. Sermon Wu, J. H. Cheng, W. C. Peng, and H. Ouyang, “Effects of laser sources on the reverse-bias leakages of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 251110 (2007).
  6. S.-H. Huang, R.-H. Horng, S.-C. Hsu, T.-Y. Chen, and D.-S. Wuu, “Surface texturing for wafer-bonded vertical-type GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(5A), 3028–3031 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2011

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

Y. C. Sermon Wu, J. H. Cheng, W. C. Peng, and H. Ouyang, “Effects of laser sources on the reverse-bias leakages of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 251110 (2007).

2005

S.-H. Huang, R.-H. Horng, S.-C. Hsu, T.-Y. Chen, and D.-S. Wuu, “Surface texturing for wafer-bonded vertical-type GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(5A), 3028–3031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beechem, E. T.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

Chang, C. S.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. L.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-Y.

S.-H. Huang, R.-H. Horng, S.-C. Hsu, T.-Y. Chen, and D.-S. Wuu, “Surface texturing for wafer-bonded vertical-type GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(5A), 3028–3031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. H.

Y. C. Sermon Wu, J. H. Cheng, W. C. Peng, and H. Ouyang, “Effects of laser sources on the reverse-bias leakages of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 251110 (2007).

Chou, J. C.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Graham, S.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R.-H.

S.-H. Huang, R.-H. Horng, S.-C. Hsu, T.-Y. Chen, and D.-S. Wuu, “Surface texturing for wafer-bonded vertical-type GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(5A), 3028–3031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. K.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. K.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-C.

S.-H. Huang, R.-H. Horng, S.-C. Hsu, T.-Y. Chen, and D.-S. Wuu, “Surface texturing for wafer-bonded vertical-type GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(5A), 3028–3031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-H.

S.-H. Huang, R.-H. Horng, S.-C. Hsu, T.-Y. Chen, and D.-S. Wuu, “Surface texturing for wafer-bonded vertical-type GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(5A), 3028–3031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C. H.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. Y.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. C.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. H.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

Liu, C. Y.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, H.

Y. C. Sermon Wu, J. H. Cheng, W. C. Peng, and H. Ouyang, “Effects of laser sources on the reverse-bias leakages of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 251110 (2007).

Peng, W. C.

Y. C. Sermon Wu, J. H. Cheng, W. C. Peng, and H. Ouyang, “Effects of laser sources on the reverse-bias leakages of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 251110 (2007).

Pong, B. J.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

Sermon Wu, Y. C.

Y. C. Sermon Wu, J. H. Cheng, W. C. Peng, and H. Ouyang, “Effects of laser sources on the reverse-bias leakages of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 251110 (2007).

Shen, C. F.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teepe, M.

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Treat, D. W.

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. M.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in-situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uang, K. M.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. R.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. J.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

H. Y. Kuo, S. J. Wang, P. R. Wang, K. M. Uang, T. M. Chen, S. L. Chen, W. C. Lee, H. K. Hsu, J. C. Chou, and C. H. Wu, “Use of elastic conductive adhesive as the bonding agent for the fabrication of vertical structure GaN-based LEDs on flexible metal substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(7), 523–525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, S. C. Hsu, S. H. Huang, C. C. Wu, C. E. Lee, and R. H. Horng, “GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection by laser lift-off and wafer bonding techniques,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(8A), 5239–5242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D.-S.

S.-H. Huang, R.-H. Horng, S.-C. Hsu, T.-Y. Chen, and D.-S. Wuu, “Surface texturing for wafer-bonded vertical-type GaN/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(5A), 3028–3031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of growth pressure of undoped GaN layer on the ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. S. Wong, M. Kneissl, P. Mei, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave InGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes on copper substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1198–1200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, E. T. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251114 (2007).

Y. C. Sermon Wu, J. H. Cheng, W. C. Peng, and H. Ouyang, “Effects of laser sources on the reverse-bias leakages of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 251110 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic structure of LED-I with a bonded Si substrate (b) schematic structure of LED-II with sapphire substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A typical cross-sectional view SEM image of LED-I (b) a focus at the trench (c) enlarged SEM image taken from the bottom surface of trench (d) a top-view image taken from the LED-I by optical microscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical L-I and I-V characteristics of the experimental LEDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Reverse I-V characteristics of the experimental LEDs (b) emission peak wavelength against on injection current for the experimental LEDs.

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