Abstract

We report on the design, fabrication and measurement of ultra-thin film Silicon On Insulator (SOI) Schottky photo-detector cells with nanostructured plasmonic arrays, demonstrating broadband enhanced photocurrent generation using aperiodic golden angle spiral geometry. Both golden angle spiral and periodic arrays of various center-to-center particle spacing were investigated to optimize the photocurrent enhancement. The primary photocurrent enhancement region is designed for the spectral range 600nm-950nm, where photon absorption in Si is inherently poor. We demonstrate that cells coupled to spiral arrays exhibit higher photocurrent enhancement compared to optimized periodic gratings structures. The findings are supported through coupled-dipole numerical simulations of radiation diagrams and finite difference time domain simulations of enhanced absorption in Si thin-films.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College Press, 2003).
  2. M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond,” Physica E14(1-2), 65–70 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  10. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114310 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. E. Ostfeld and D. Pacifici, “Plasmonic concentrators for enhanced light absorption in ultrathin film organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. A. Adam, A Mathematical Nature Walk (Princeton University Press, 2009).
  26. J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2008–2016 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. E. Macia, Aperiodic Structures in Condensed Matter: Fundamentals and Applications (CRC Press Taylor & Francis, 2009).
  28. M. Naylor, “Golden, √ 2, and π flowers: a spiral story,” Math. Mag.75, 163–172 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. J. Mitchison, “Phyllotaxis and the fibonacci series,” Science196(4287), 270–275 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. Janot, Quasicrystals: A Primer (Clarendon Press, 1992).
  31. C. Forestiere, G. Miano, G. Rubinacci, and L. Dal Negro, “Role of aperiodic order in the spectral, localization, and scaling properties of plasmon modes for the design of nanoparticles arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(8), 085404 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Trevino, S. F. Liew, H. Noh, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Geometrical structure, multifractal spectra and localized optical modes of aperiodic Vogel spirals,” Opt. Express20(3), 3015–3033 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. F. Liew, H. Noh, J. Trevino, L. D. Negro, and H. Cao, “Localized photonic band edge modes and orbital angular momenta of light in a golden-angle spiral,” Opt. Express19(24), 23631–23642 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. E. Pollard and G. J. Parker, “Low-contrast bandgaps of a planar parabolic spiral lattice,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2805–2807 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. C. Forestiere, G. Miano, S. V. Boriskina, and L. Dal Negro, “The role of nanoparticle shapes and deterministic aperiodicity for the design of nanoplasmonic arrays,” Opt. Express17(12), 9648–9661 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. C. Forestiere, G. F. Walsh, G. Miano, and L. Dal Negro, “Nanoplasmonics of prime number arrays,” Opt. Express17(26), 24288–24303 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  38. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2004).
  39. S. Y. Lee, C. Forestiere, A. J. Pasquale, J. Trevino, G. Walsh, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, and L. Dal Negro, “Plasmon-enhanced structural coloration of metal films with isotropic Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express19(24), 23818–23830 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Lumerical FDTD Solutions, www.lumerical.com
  41. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method. 3rd edn. (Artech House, 2005).
  42. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1997).
  43. S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  44. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (6)

S. F. Liew, H. Noh, J. Trevino, L. D. Negro, and H. Cao, “Localized photonic band edge modes and orbital angular momenta of light in a golden-angle spiral,” Opt. Express19(24), 23631–23642 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, C. Forestiere, A. J. Pasquale, J. Trevino, G. Walsh, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, and L. Dal Negro, “Plasmon-enhanced structural coloration of metal films with isotropic Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express19(24), 23818–23830 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Ostfeld and D. Pacifici, “Plasmonic concentrators for enhanced light absorption in ultrathin film organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2008–2016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, G. Rubinacci, and L. Dal Negro, “Role of aperiodic order in the spectral, localization, and scaling properties of plasmon modes for the design of nanoparticles arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(8), 085404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Pollard and G. J. Parker, “Low-contrast bandgaps of a planar parabolic spiral lattice,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2805–2807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, S. V. Boriskina, and L. Dal Negro, “The role of nanoparticle shapes and deterministic aperiodicity for the design of nanoplasmonic arrays,” Opt. Express17(12), 9648–9661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Forestiere, G. F. Walsh, G. Miano, and L. Dal Negro, “Nanoplasmonics of prime number arrays,” Opt. Express17(26), 24288–24303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Naylor, “Golden, √ 2, and π flowers: a spiral story,” Math. Mag.75, 163–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond,” Physica E14(1-2), 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. J. Mitchison, “Phyllotaxis and the fibonacci series,” Science196(4287), 270–275 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

Atwater, H.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, J.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Boriskina, S. V.

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cao, H.

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, N.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chanda, D.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E.

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Conibeer, G.

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dal Negro, L.

Dalal, V.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Waele, R.

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eisele, C.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, C.

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forestiere, C.

Franken, R. H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galli, P.

Green, M. A.

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond,” Physica E14(1-2), 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haase, C.

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lare, M. C.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

Lewis, B.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Li, H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liew, S. F.

Mallick, S. B.

Miano, G.

Mitchison, G. J.

G. J. Mitchison, “Phyllotaxis and the fibonacci series,” Science196(4287), 270–275 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mokkapati, S.

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naylor, M.

M. Naylor, “Golden, √ 2, and π flowers: a spiral story,” Math. Mag.75, 163–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nebel, C. E.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

Noh, H.

Ostfeld, A. E.

A. E. Ostfeld and D. Pacifici, “Plasmonic concentrators for enhanced light absorption in ultrathin film organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Owens, J. M.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

A. E. Ostfeld and D. Pacifici, “Plasmonic concentrators for enhanced light absorption in ultrathin film organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, G. J.

Pasquale, A. J.

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Peumans, P.

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, M. E.

Polman, A.

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rath, J. K.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romagnoli, M.

Rubinacci, G.

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, G. Rubinacci, and L. Dal Negro, “Role of aperiodic order in the spectral, localization, and scaling properties of plasmon modes for the design of nanoparticles arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(8), 085404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shir, D.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivec, L.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, D.

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stiebig, H.

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stolk, R. L.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, H. R.

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, K.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trevino, J.

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

van der Werf, C. H. M.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G.

Walsh, G. F.

Walters, R. J.

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yan, B.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, G.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red response in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back refelctors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Ostfeld and D. Pacifici, “Plasmonic concentrators for enhanced light absorption in ultrathin film organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(11), 113112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.89(12), 7722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.102(1), 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys.104(12), 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Resonant nano-antennas for light trapping in plasmonic solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(18), 185101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Math. Mag. (1)

M. Naylor, “Golden, √ 2, and π flowers: a spiral story,” Math. Mag.75, 163–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

J. Trevino, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2008–2016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J. H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Trevino, S. F. Liew, H. Noh, H. Cao, and L. Dal Negro, “Geometrical structure, multifractal spectra and localized optical modes of aperiodic Vogel spirals,” Opt. Express20(3), 3015–3033 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Liew, H. Noh, J. Trevino, L. D. Negro, and H. Cao, “Localized photonic band edge modes and orbital angular momenta of light in a golden-angle spiral,” Opt. Express19(24), 23631–23642 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, S. V. Boriskina, and L. Dal Negro, “The role of nanoparticle shapes and deterministic aperiodicity for the design of nanoplasmonic arrays,” Opt. Express17(12), 9648–9661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Forestiere, G. F. Walsh, G. Miano, and L. Dal Negro, “Nanoplasmonics of prime number arrays,” Opt. Express17(26), 24288–24303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, C. Forestiere, A. J. Pasquale, J. Trevino, G. Walsh, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, and L. Dal Negro, “Plasmon-enhanced structural coloration of metal films with isotropic Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express19(24), 23818–23830 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Forestiere, G. Miano, G. Rubinacci, and L. Dal Negro, “Role of aperiodic order in the spectral, localization, and scaling properties of plasmon modes for the design of nanoparticles arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(8), 085404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond,” Physica E14(1-2), 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. J. Mitchison, “Phyllotaxis and the fibonacci series,” Science196(4287), 270–275 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

D. Song, E. Cho, G. Conibeer, C. Flynn, Y. Huang, and M. A. Green, “Structural, electrical and photovoltaic characterization of of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiC matrix and Si nanocrystals/crystalline silicon heterojunction devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92, 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nanocrystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back-reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College Press, 2003).

C. Janot, Quasicrystals: A Primer (Clarendon Press, 1992).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2004).

J. A. Adam, A Mathematical Nature Walk (Princeton University Press, 2009).

E. Macia, Aperiodic Structures in Condensed Matter: Fundamentals and Applications (CRC Press Taylor & Francis, 2009).

Lumerical FDTD Solutions, www.lumerical.com

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method. 3rd edn. (Artech House, 2005).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1997).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Periodic array of particles, N = 1225 (b) Calculated spatial Fourier spectrum of periodic array. (c) GA Spiral array with N = 1500 particles. (d) Calculated spatial Fourier spectrum of the GA spiral.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated radiation diagrams as a function of the inclination angle (Theta) for a periodic array with N = 3505 (a) and a GA spiral with N = 1810 (b) for three different wavelengths, namely 480nm (Blue), 520nm (Green), and 650nm (Red). The periodic array has a lattice spacing of 300 nm, the GA spiral features an averaged minimum inter-particle separation of 420nm. (The interparticle separations in both cases results from the experimental optimization performed in section 5)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic cross section (not to scale) of the performed FDTD simulations. The red and blue dashed lines indicate the limits of the simulation box where PML boundary conditions and periodic boundary conditions are enforced, respectively. The black dashed lines are the monitors where power fluxes are calculated. (b) Fraction of the incident power absorbed into a periodic array of gold nano-cylinders (D = 100nm, h = 30nm) and on a 50nm tick Silicon substrate, calculated with FDTD. Predicted absorption enhancement within a 50nm tick Si substrate due to a periodic array of gold nano-cylinders (D = 100nm, h = 30nm) with respect to the bare substrate (c) and the correspondent integrated enhancement factor (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative SEM micrographs of a (a) periodic and (b) GA Spiral array of Au nanoparticles with lattice spacing 300nm and average center to center spacing of 425nm respectively. The cylindrical particle diameters are 100nm, while the entire array geometry has a 100µm circular diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Device cross-section of stack used to quantify absorption enhancement. (b) Experimental reflection measurement configuration used calculate absorption enhancement. Reflection of a broadband white light source was measured by a CCD detector through excitation and collection of a 50x objective (NA = 0.5). (c) Device cross-section of the SOI Schottky photo-detector with plasmonic arrays integrated onto the absorbing surface. (d) Bright-field microscope image of the device with five 100µm diameter GA spirals integrated into the active device area.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental absorption enhancement for a GA spirals (solid lines) with average center to center spacing of 120nm, 425nm, and 680nm and periodic arrays (dashed lines) with lattice spacing of 150nm, 300nm, and 525nm. (b) Integrated absorption enhancement ratio for GA spirals (red, solid) and periodic (black, dashed) arrays of various interparticle spacing. Enhancement ratios are calculated by the ratio of the integrated measure with the nanopatterned device verses the integrated measure without nanopatterning.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Periodic array photocurrent spectrum with lattice spacing of 300nm (solid) and empty neighbor reference cell (dashed). (b) Spiral array photocurrent with average center to center spacing of 425nm (solid) and empty neighbor references cells (dashed). (c) Spectral photocurrent enhancement spectra for GA spiral arrays (red, a = 425nm) and periodic arrays (black dashed, a = 300nm). (d) Integrated photocurrent enhancement ratio for GA spiral (red) and periodic (black dashed) arrays of different center to center particle spacing.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ r=a n θ=nα
IF enh = 1 ( λ max λ min ) λ min λ max ( α enh 1 ) dλ
{ A array (λ)=1 R array (λ) / R Au (λ) A ref (λ)=1 R ref (λ) / R Au (λ) α enh (λ)= A array (λ) / A ref (λ)

Metrics