Abstract

This experiment demonstrates the process for manufacturing a ZnO honeycomb sub-wavelength structure using nanosphere lithography technology exhibiting excellent anti-reflection properties from the UV to NIR wavelength regions. This honeycomb nanostructure, combined with commercially available crystalline Si solar cells, show substantially improved conversion efficiency from 15.6% to 16.6% using optimized honeycomb sizes and precursor concentrations of ZnO. The present work develops an unsophisticated and economical technique suitable for industrial applications in producing a uniform and low-reflective texture.

© 2011 OSA

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  6. J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, and H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chen, W. L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(15), 14411–14419 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Huang, H. H. Lin, J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, and W. L. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of the poly-silicon solar cell using self-assembled dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2540–2544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

H. Morikawa, D. Niinobe, K. Nishimura, S. Matsuno, and S. Arimoto, “Processes for over 18.5% high-efficiency multi-crystalline silicon solar cell,” Curr. Appl. Phys.10(2), S210–S214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kim, J. Bang, S. Jang, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Surface texturing of GaAs using a nanosphere lithography technique for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films518(22), 6583–6586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Chiu, C. H. Chang, M. A. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, and P. C. Yu, “Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A308–A313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Antireflective surfaces based on biomimetic nanopillared arrays,” Nano Today5(2), 117–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, T. Fan, T. Han, X. Li, J. Ding, D. Zhang, Q. Guo, and H. Ogawa, “Bacteria-based controlled assembly of metal chalcogenide hollow nanostructures with enhanced light-harvesting and photocatalytic properties,” Nanotechnology20(8), 085603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. B. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B83(1-2), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.101(10), 104309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Manea, E. Budianu, M. Purica, C. Podaru, A. Popescu, I. Cernica, F. Babarada, and C. C. Parvulescu, “SnO2 thin films prepared by sol gel method for ‘Honeycomb’ textured silicon solar cells,” Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol10, 25–33 (2007).

2006 (1)

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Zhang, O. Sato, M. Taguchi, Y. Einaga, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Self-cleaning particle coating with antireflection properties,” Chem. Mater.17(3), 696–700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurišić, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(2), 121–125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. H. Zhao, and A. H. Wang, “Angle-dependent reflectance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 139–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. H. Zhao, A. H. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Absorption enhancement in silicon-on-insulator waveguides using metal island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2327–2329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Altermatt, and M. A. Green, “Twenty-four percent efficient silicon solar cells with double layer antireflection coatings and reduced resistance loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the ‘Moth Eye’ principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alim, K. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Altermatt, P.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Altermatt, and M. A. Green, “Twenty-four percent efficient silicon solar cells with double layer antireflection coatings and reduced resistance loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arimoto, S.

H. Morikawa, D. Niinobe, K. Nishimura, S. Matsuno, and S. Arimoto, “Processes for over 18.5% high-efficiency multi-crystalline silicon solar cell,” Curr. Appl. Phys.10(2), S210–S214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babarada, F.

E. Manea, E. Budianu, M. Purica, C. Podaru, A. Popescu, I. Cernica, F. Babarada, and C. C. Parvulescu, “SnO2 thin films prepared by sol gel method for ‘Honeycomb’ textured silicon solar cells,” Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol10, 25–33 (2007).

Balandin, A. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bang, J.

B. Kim, J. Bang, S. Jang, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Surface texturing of GaAs using a nanosphere lithography technique for solar cell applications,” Thin Solid Films518(22), 6583–6586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Budianu, E.

E. Manea, E. Budianu, M. Purica, C. Podaru, A. Popescu, I. Cernica, F. Babarada, and C. C. Parvulescu, “SnO2 thin films prepared by sol gel method for ‘Honeycomb’ textured silicon solar cells,” Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol10, 25–33 (2007).

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cernica, I.

E. Manea, E. Budianu, M. Purica, C. Podaru, A. Popescu, I. Cernica, F. Babarada, and C. C. Parvulescu, “SnO2 thin films prepared by sol gel method for ‘Honeycomb’ textured silicon solar cells,” Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol10, 25–33 (2007).

Chan, W. K.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurišić, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Chang, F. Y.

Chang, W. L.

J. Y. Chen, W. L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(15), 14411–14419 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Huang, H. H. Lin, J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, and W. L. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of the poly-silicon solar cell using self-assembled dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2540–2544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. Y.

J. Y. Chen, W. L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(15), 14411–14419 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Huang, H. H. Lin, J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, and W. L. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of the poly-silicon solar cell using self-assembled dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2540–2544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, M. Y.

Clapham, P. B.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the ‘Moth Eye’ principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Derkacs, D.

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.101(10), 104309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

H. Zhou, T. Fan, T. Han, X. Li, J. Ding, D. Zhang, Q. Guo, and H. Ogawa, “Bacteria-based controlled assembly of metal chalcogenide hollow nanostructures with enhanced light-harvesting and photocatalytic properties,” Nanotechnology20(8), 085603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djurišic, A. B.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurišić, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Einaga, Y.

X.-T. Zhang, O. Sato, M. Taguchi, Y. Einaga, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Self-cleaning particle coating with antireflection properties,” Chem. Mater.17(3), 696–700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T.

H. Zhou, T. Fan, T. Han, X. Li, J. Ding, D. Zhang, Q. Guo, and H. Ogawa, “Bacteria-based controlled assembly of metal chalcogenide hollow nanostructures with enhanced light-harvesting and photocatalytic properties,” Nanotechnology20(8), 085603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferrazza, F.

J. H. Zhao, A. H. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fonoberov, V. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. B. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B83(1-2), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-T. Zhang, O. Sato, M. Taguchi, Y. Einaga, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Self-cleaning particle coating with antireflection properties,” Chem. Mater.17(3), 696–700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, A.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

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E. Manea, E. Budianu, M. Purica, C. Podaru, A. Popescu, I. Cernica, F. Babarada, and C. C. Parvulescu, “SnO2 thin films prepared by sol gel method for ‘Honeycomb’ textured silicon solar cells,” Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol10, 25–33 (2007).

Purica, M.

E. Manea, E. Budianu, M. Purica, C. Podaru, A. Popescu, I. Cernica, F. Babarada, and C. C. Parvulescu, “SnO2 thin films prepared by sol gel method for ‘Honeycomb’ textured silicon solar cells,” Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol10, 25–33 (2007).

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Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.3(2), 121–125 (2004).
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A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. H. Zhao, and A. H. Wang, “Angle-dependent reflectance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 139–151 (1999).
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X.-T. Zhang, O. Sato, M. Taguchi, Y. Einaga, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Self-cleaning particle coating with antireflection properties,” Chem. Mater.17(3), 696–700 (2005).
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L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
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K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, and H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 288–291 (2011).
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S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
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H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Absorption enhancement in silicon-on-insulator waveguides using metal island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2327–2329 (1996).
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C. K. Huang, H. H. Lin, J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, and W. L. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of the poly-silicon solar cell using self-assembled dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2540–2544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chen, W. L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express19(15), 14411–14419 (2011).
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J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
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A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. H. Zhao, and A. H. Wang, “Angle-dependent reflectance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 139–151 (1999).
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S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
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S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

Wang, A. H.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. H. Zhao, and A. H. Wang, “Angle-dependent reflectance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 139–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, A. H. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
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Wong, S. M.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, M. H.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurišić, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. J.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurišić, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakubu, H.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. H. Zhao, and A. H. Wang, “Angle-dependent reflectance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 139–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Y. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Antireflective surfaces based on biomimetic nanopillared arrays,” Nano Today5(2), 117–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, and H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.101(10), 104309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. C.

Zhai, J.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. B. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B83(1-2), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Antireflective surfaces based on biomimetic nanopillared arrays,” Nano Today5(2), 117–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. B. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B83(1-2), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-T.

X.-T. Zhang, O. Sato, M. Taguchi, Y. Einaga, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Self-cleaning particle coating with antireflection properties,” Chem. Mater.17(3), 696–700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Altermatt, and M. A. Green, “Twenty-four percent efficient silicon solar cells with double layer antireflection coatings and reduced resistance loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. H. Zhao, and A. H. Wang, “Angle-dependent reflectance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 139–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, A. H. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. B. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B83(1-2), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, T. Fan, T. Han, X. Li, J. Ding, D. Zhang, Q. Guo, and H. Ogawa, “Bacteria-based controlled assembly of metal chalcogenide hollow nanostructures with enhanced light-harvesting and photocatalytic properties,” Nanotechnology20(8), 085603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, D. B.

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. B. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B83(1-2), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Catal. B (1)

Y. Zhao, X. T. Zhang, J. Zhai, J. L. He, L. Jiang, Z. Y. Liu, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, A. Fujishima, and D. B. Zhu, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of hierarchically micro-/nano-porous TiO2 films,” Appl. Catal. B83(1-2), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurišić, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
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J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Altermatt, and M. A. Green, “Twenty-four percent efficient silicon solar cells with double layer antireflection coatings and reduced resistance loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(26), 3636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, A. H. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X.-T. Zhang, O. Sato, M. Taguchi, Y. Einaga, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Self-cleaning particle coating with antireflection properties,” Chem. Mater.17(3), 696–700 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Morikawa, D. Niinobe, K. Nishimura, S. Matsuno, and S. Arimoto, “Processes for over 18.5% high-efficiency multi-crystalline silicon solar cell,” Curr. Appl. Phys.10(2), S210–S214 (2010).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.101(10), 104309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
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K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
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Langmuir (1)

W. Joo, H. J. Kim, and J. K. Kim, “Broadband antireflection coating covering from visible to near infrared wavelengths by using multilayered nanoporous block copolymer films,” Langmuir26(7), 5110–5114 (2010).
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Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Today (1)

Y. Li, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Antireflective surfaces based on biomimetic nanopillared arrays,” Nano Today5(2), 117–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. Zhou, T. Fan, T. Han, X. Li, J. Ding, D. Zhang, Q. Guo, and H. Ogawa, “Bacteria-based controlled assembly of metal chalcogenide hollow nanostructures with enhanced light-harvesting and photocatalytic properties,” Nanotechnology20(8), 085603 (2009).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

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Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. H. Zhao, and A. H. Wang, “Angle-dependent reflectance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells,” Opt. Commun.172(1-6), 139–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol (1)

E. Manea, E. Budianu, M. Purica, C. Podaru, A. Popescu, I. Cernica, F. Babarada, and C. C. Parvulescu, “SnO2 thin films prepared by sol gel method for ‘Honeycomb’ textured silicon solar cells,” Rom. J. Inform. Sci. Technol10, 25–33 (2007).

Science (1)

S. Walheim, E. Schaffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,” Science283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

C. K. Huang, H. H. Lin, J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, and W. L. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of the poly-silicon solar cell using self-assembled dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2540–2544 (2011).
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K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, and H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 288–291 (2011).
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J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the fabrication processes for the 3D nano-scale honeycomb structures on micro-scale texture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the NHSL on the textured solar cell surface. The inset shows the enlarged image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonresonant Raman spectrum of NHSL excited with a laser at 488 nm and a power of 50 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The EDS results of ZnO NHSL. The inset gives the XRD pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance spectra at maximum performance of solar cells integrated with NHSL with PS nanoparticle sizes of (a) 100 nm, (b) 250 nm and (c) 500 nm at different precursor concentrations of ZnO. The spectrum of an untreated device is also presented in parallel for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FESEM images of ZnO NHSL on c-Si solar cell prepared with PS nanoparticles with sizes of (a) 100 nm, (b) 250 nm, and (c) 500 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gains in conversion efficiency and current density of c-Si solar cells after optimization of NHSL pore sizes and precursor concentrations of ZnO.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

J-V characteristics of the optimized solar cells integrated with the NHSL in compared to devices without the NHSL.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

External quantum efficiency at maximum performance measured under AM 1.5 G illumination for solar cells integrated with NHSL for PS nanoparticle sizes of 100, 250, 500 nm. Results from an untreated device is also displayed in parallel for comparison.

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