Abstract

In this study, the characteristics of the nitride-based blue light-emitting diode (LED) without an electron-blocking layer (EBL) are analyzed numerically. The emission spectra, carrier concentrations in the quantum wells (QWs), energy band diagrams, electrostatic fields, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) are investigated. The simulation results indicate that the LED without an EBL has a better hole-injection efficiency and smaller electrostatic fields in its active region over the conventional LED with an AlGaN EBL. The simulation results also show that the LED without an EBL has severe efficiency droop. However, when the special designed p-type doped InGaN QW barriers are used, the efficiency droop is markedly improved and the electroluminescence (EL) emission intensity is greatly enhanced which is due to the improvement of the hole uniformity in the active region and small electron leakage.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with varying quantum well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).
  8. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 319–323 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 202107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and Y. K. Kuo, “Advantages of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with AlGaN barriers,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1368–1370 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and Y. K. Kuo, “Advantages of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with AlGaN barriers,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with varying quantum well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 202107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Chen, G.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, G. C.

A. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

Gaska, R.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gotz, W.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haeger, D. A.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-R.

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with varying quantum well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaeding, J. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsuragawa, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 202107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelchner, K. M.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-C.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-H.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

Kuo, Y. K.

Kuo, Y.-K.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuokstis, E.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.-H.

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with varying quantum well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

A. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with varying quantum well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-T.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liou, B.-T.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lundin, W. V.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J. L.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mihopoulos, T. G.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minsky, M. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mintairov, A. M.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G. O.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

Nakamura, S.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neploh, V. V.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nikolaev, A. E.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 202107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ryou, J.-H.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakharov, A. V.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

Shur, M. S.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sizov, V. S.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, A. L.

A. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. C.

Tsai, M.-C.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsatsulnikov, A. F.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

Xu, J.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-H.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zavarin, E. E.

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. P.

R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with varying quantum well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 202107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

A. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of original LEDs with an EBL and u-GaN barriers (structure A), non-EBL LEDs with u-GaN barriers (structure B), and non-EBL LEDs with p-type doped InGaN barriers (structure C).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The electrostatic fields of LEDs with (structure A) and without (structure B) an AlGaN EBL at 200 A/cm2 when u-GaN barriers are used.(there is a small location shift on horizontal axis for better observation .)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The energy band diagrams of u-GaN barrier LEDs (a) with (structure A) and (b) without (structure B) an AlGaN EBL at 200 A/cm2

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Electron and (b) hole concentrations of LEDs with (structure A) and without (structure B) an AlGaN EBL in the active region at 200 A/cm2

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The energy band diagrams of non-EBL LEDs w ith (a) GaN (structure B) and (b) InGaN (structure C) barriers at 200 A/cm2

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Hole concentrations of structure B and C, and (b) Electron concentrations of structure A and C at 200 A/cm2 (the x axis ranges are stretched for better observation)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The electrostatic field diagrams of non-EBL LEDs with GaN (structure B) and InGaN (structure C) barriers at 200 A/cm2

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) EL spectra at 200 A/cm2 and (b) IQE vs injection current for the LEDs of the three structures.

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