Abstract

We carry out a systematic numerical study of the effects of aperiodicity on silicon nanorod anti-reflection structures. We use the scattering matrix method to calculate the average reflection loss over the solar spectrum for periodic and aperiodic arrangements of nanorods. We find that aperiodicity can either improve or deteriorate the anti-reflection performance, depending on the nanorod diameter. We use a guided random-walk algorithm to design optimal aperiodic structures that exhibit lower reflection loss than both optimal periodic and random aperiodic structures.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (5)

2010 (4)

H. Bao and X. Ruan, “Optical absorption enhancement in disordered vertical silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3378–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J.-H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Optimization of moth-eye antireflection schemes for silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(3), 195–203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Seliger, M. Mahvash, C. Wang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.100(3), 034310–034316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, X. Hu, Z. Ye, K. M. Ho, J. Cao, and M. Miyawaki, “Higher-order incidence transfer matrix method used in three-dimensional photonic crystal coupled-resonator array simulation,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3498–3500 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. L. Sopori and R. A. Pryor, “Design of antireflection coatings for textured silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells8(3), 249–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Acet, M.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, A. A.

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Optimization of moth-eye antireflection schemes for silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(3), 195–203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bao, H.

Beckers, T.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bittkau, K.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jager, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Optimization of moth-eye antireflection schemes for silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(3), 195–203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Botten, L. C.

Campbell, P.

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Carius, R.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carl, A.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chanda, D.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J.-H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. H.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dossou, K. B.

Ermes, M.

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jager, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, A.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hadobás, K.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Ho, K. M.

Hsu, C.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y.-K.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

Huang, Y. F.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jager, K.

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jager, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y. J.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection gratings fabricated upon silicon substrates,” Opt. Lett.24(20), 1422–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsch, S.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kupec, J.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, A. F. J.

P. Seliger, M. Mahvash, C. Wang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.100(3), 034310–034316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Lin, C.

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, Y.-C.

Liu, T.-A.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahvash, M.

P. Seliger, M. Mahvash, C. Wang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.100(3), 034310–034316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

Miyawaki, M.

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pai, Y.-H.

Pan, C.-L.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pieters, B. E.

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jager, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

Povinelli, M. L.

Pryor, R. A.

B. L. Sopori and R. A. Pryor, “Design of antireflection coatings for textured silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells8(3), 249–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J.-H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, X.

Ryu, J.-H.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J.-H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Schulte, M.

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jager, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seliger, P.

P. Seliger, M. Mahvash, C. Wang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.100(3), 034310–034316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shir, D.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J.-H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sopori, B. L.

B. L. Sopori and R. A. Pryor, “Design of antireflection coatings for textured silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells8(3), 249–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sturmberg, B. C. P.

Tsai, J.-L.

Wang, C.

P. Seliger, M. Mahvash, C. Wang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.100(3), 034310–034316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Witzigmann, B.

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

Yoon, J.

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J.-H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jager, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulte, K. Bittkau, K. Jager, M. Ermes, M. Zeman, and B. E. Pieters, “Angular resolved scattering by a nano-textured ZnO/silicon interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Seliger, M. Mahvash, C. Wang, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.100(3), 034310–034316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, “Wide-angle antireflection effect of subwavelength structures for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(6A), 3333–3336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Shir, J. Yoon, D. Chanda, J.-H. Ryu, and J. A. Rogers, “Performance of ultrathin silicon solar microcells with nanostructures of relief formed by soft imprint lithography for broad band absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett.10(8), 3041–3046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, and E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Optimization of moth-eye antireflection schemes for silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(3), 195–203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Cells (1)

B. L. Sopori and R. A. Pryor, “Design of antireflection coatings for textured silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells8(3), 249–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. Bittkau, M. Schulte, M. Klein, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “Modeling of light scattering properties from surface profile in thin-film solar cells by Fourier transform techniques,” Thin Solid Films519(19), 6538–6543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. F. Edwards, “Silicon (Si),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

T. C. Choy, Effective Medium Theory: Principles and Applications (Calrendon, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of periodic (a), almost periodic (b), and random (c) anti-reflection nanostructures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top view of one unit cell in a periodic structure. (b) Average reflection loss (ARL) as a function of lattice constant and d/a ratio. (c) Reflectance spectra for periodic structures with a fixed filling ratio of 0.38 for a range of lattice constants. The white dashed line indicates the diffraction limit in air (a = λ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average reflection loss (ARL) as a function of nanorod diameter for periodic structures, almost periodic structures (10% positional disorder), random aperiodic structures, and optimally designed aperiodic structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance spectra for periodic, random aperiodic, and optimal aperiodic structures, averaged over TE and TM polarizations. The nanorod diameters are 70 nm (a), 140 nm (b), and 210 nm (c), respectively.

Equations (1)

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ARL= 310nm 1127nm R TE (λ)+ R TM (λ) 2 I(λ)λdλ 310nm 1127nm I(λ)λdλ

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