Abstract

This paper shows that visible-light ptychography can be used to distinguish quantitatively between healthy and tumorous unstained cells. Advantages of ptychography in comparison to conventional phase-sensitive imaging techniques are highlighted. A novel procedure to automatically refocus ptychographic reconstructions is also presented, which improves quantitative analysis.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. W. Hoppe, “Diffraction in inhomogeneous primary wave fields: 1. principle of phase determination from electron diffraction interference,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity:a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16, 7264–7278 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues, 1st ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2011).
  10. K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Schluesener and T. Xianglin, “Selection of recombinant phages binding to pathological endothelial and tumor cells of rat glioblastoma by in-vivo display,” J. Neurol. Sci. 224, 77–82 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Sciencelearn.org, “What is cancer,” http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/See-through-Body/Looking-closer/What-is-cancer .
  13. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  14. C. P. McElhinney, B. M. Hennely, and T. J. Naughton, “Extended focused imaging for digital holograms of macroscopic three-dimensional objects,” Appl. Opt. 47, D71–D78 (2008).
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  15. D. Claus, “High resolution digital holographic synthetic aperture applied to deformation measurement and extended depth of field method,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3187–3198 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Haferkorn, Optik, Physikalisch-technische Grunlagen und Anwendungen (Willey-VCH, 2003).
  17. S. L. Shorte and F. Frischknecht, editors, Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions (Springer, 2007).
  18. P. Rabinovitch, “Introduction to cell cycle analysis,” http://www.phnxflow.com/Introduction to Cell Cycle Analysis.pdf.
  19. Z. Hameed and C. Wang, “Edge detection using histogram equalization and multi-filtering process,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1077–1080.
  20. G. S. Benham, “Practical aspects of objective lens selection for confocal and multiphoton digital imaging techniques,” in Cell biological applications of confocal microscopy, B. Matsumoto ed. (Academic Press, 2002), pp. 245–299.
  21. L. Granero, V. Micó, Z. Zalevsky, and J. Garcia, “Synthetic aperture superresolved microscopy in digital lensless fourier holography by time and angular multiplexing of the object information,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3187–3198 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. J. Schluesener and T. Xianglin, “Selection of recombinant phages binding to pathological endothelial and tumor cells of rat glioblastoma by in-vivo display,” J. Neurol. Sci. 224, 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. Hoppe, “Diffraction in inhomogeneous primary wave fields: 1. principle of phase determination from electron diffraction interference,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Benham, G. S.

G. S. Benham, “Practical aspects of objective lens selection for confocal and multiphoton digital imaging techniques,” in Cell biological applications of confocal microscopy, B. Matsumoto ed. (Academic Press, 2002), pp. 245–299.

Bunk, O.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claus, D.

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dierolf, M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Garcia, J.

González, L. A.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Granero, L.

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Haferkorn, H.

H. Haferkorn, Optik, Physikalisch-technische Grunlagen und Anwendungen (Willey-VCH, 2003).

Hameed, Z.

Z. Hameed and C. Wang, “Edge detection using histogram equalization and multi-filtering process,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1077–1080.

Hennely, B. M.

Hoppe, W.

W. Hoppe, “Diffraction in inhomogeneous primary wave fields: 1. principle of phase determination from electron diffraction interference,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Humphry, M. J.

Hurst, A. C.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iturbe Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, I.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElhinney, C. P.

Menzel, A.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micó, V.

Naughton, T. J.

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olivos-Pérez, L. I.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues, 1st ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2011).

Ramos García, R.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Ortiz, M.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez de-la Llave, D.

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schluesener, H. J.

H. J. Schluesener and T. Xianglin, “Selection of recombinant phages binding to pathological endothelial and tumor cells of rat glioblastoma by in-vivo display,” J. Neurol. Sci. 224, 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, P.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Z. Hameed and C. Wang, “Edge detection using histogram equalization and multi-filtering process,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1077–1080.

Wepf, R.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xianglin, T.

H. J. Schluesener and T. Xianglin, “Selection of recombinant phages binding to pathological endothelial and tumor cells of rat glioblastoma by in-vivo display,” J. Neurol. Sci. 224, 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhang, F.

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

W. Hoppe, “Diffraction in inhomogeneous primary wave fields: 1. principle of phase determination from electron diffraction interference,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Neurol. Sci. (1)

H. J. Schluesener and T. Xianglin, “Selection of recombinant phages binding to pathological endothelial and tumor cells of rat glioblastoma by in-vivo display,” J. Neurol. Sci. 224, 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 46, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. D. Iturbe Castillo, D. Sánchez de-la Llave, R. Ramos García, L. I. Olivos-Pérez, M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, and L. A. González, “Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2367–2368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues, 1st ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2011).

Sciencelearn.org, “What is cancer,” http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/See-through-Body/Looking-closer/What-is-cancer .

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

H. Haferkorn, Optik, Physikalisch-technische Grunlagen und Anwendungen (Willey-VCH, 2003).

S. L. Shorte and F. Frischknecht, editors, Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions (Springer, 2007).

P. Rabinovitch, “Introduction to cell cycle analysis,” http://www.phnxflow.com/Introduction to Cell Cycle Analysis.pdf.

Z. Hameed and C. Wang, “Edge detection using histogram equalization and multi-filtering process,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1077–1080.

G. S. Benham, “Practical aspects of objective lens selection for confocal and multiphoton digital imaging techniques,” in Cell biological applications of confocal microscopy, B. Matsumoto ed. (Academic Press, 2002), pp. 245–299.

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