An approximate bit-error rate (BER) expression of 8-star quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) in the presence of a phase estimation error is derived. The accuracy of the approximate BER is verified via numerical integration of the conditional BER and the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations. This approximation allows quick estimation of the BER performance and prediction of laser linewidth tolerance, and also facilitates optimization of the ring ratio.
©2012 Optical Society of America
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