Abstract

Terahertz (THz) radiation can be generated by ultrafast photo-excitation of carriers in a semiconductor partly masked by a gold surface. A simulation of the effect taking into account the diffusion of carriers and the electric field shows that the total net current is approximately zero and cannot account for the THz radiation. Finite element modelling and analytic calculations indicate that the THz emission arises because the metal inhibits the radiation from part of the dipole population, thus creating an asymmetry and therefore a net current. Experimental investigations confirm the simulations and show that metal-mask dipole inhibition can be used to create THz emitters.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett.27, 1935–1937 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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2011

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

I. S. Gregory, “The development of a continuous-wave terahertz imaging system,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (2004).

C. Baker, “Development of semiconductor materials for terahertz photoconductive antennas,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (2004).

2002

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett.27, 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium-arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys.53, R123–R181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1970

K. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Luminol.1, 693–701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables (Dover Publications, New York, 1972).

Apostolopoulos, V.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker, “Development of semiconductor materials for terahertz photoconductive antennas,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (2004).

Barnes, M. E.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

Bastian, G.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

Beere, H. E.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blakemore, J. S.

J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium-arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys.53, R123–R181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

Chung, A. L.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Corchia, A.

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Daniell, G. J.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett.27, 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doi, T.

Dowd, A.

Drexhage, K.

K. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Luminol.1, 693–701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M. J.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feshbach, H.

P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1953).

Fischer, M.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

Gebs, R.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, I. S.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, “The development of a continuous-wave terahertz imaging system,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (2004).

Gu, P.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hilser, F.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

Hosako, I.

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huska, K.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett.27, 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klatt, G.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kono, S.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kütt, W.

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

Li, X.

Linfield, E.

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McBryde, D.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morse, P. M.

P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1953).

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Pepper, M.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, W.

Quarterman, A. H.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett.27, 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, O.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, L.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables (Dover Publications, New York, 1972).

Stephan, D.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Surrer, B.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, Y.

Toyoda, K.

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D.

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

Wilcox, K. G.

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Z.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 204104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium-arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys.53, R123–R181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Luminol.

K. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Luminol.1, 693–701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47, 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of OSA/CLEO/QELS 2010 Paper CMJJ2 (2010).

Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz)

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” in Proceedings of The 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1–2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. McBryde, M. E. Barnes, A. L. Chung, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, and V. Apostolopoulos, “Simulation of metallic nanostructures for emission of THz radiation using the lateral photo-Dember effect,” arXiv:1202.1459v1, (2012), http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.1459v1 .

I. S. Gregory, “The development of a continuous-wave terahertz imaging system,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (2004).

C. Baker, “Development of semiconductor materials for terahertz photoconductive antennas,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (2004).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1953).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables (Dover Publications, New York, 1972).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the LPD effect showing how the laser beam is partly masked by a metallic region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM of a 2D multiplex emitter based on the concepts given in [7] which failed to produce any measurable THz emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b), (c), representation of the electron density, hole density and current density, respectively. Each curve is at 20 ps intervals within a 80 ps time frame; progression of time corresponds to a fall of the peak concentration or peak current density.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) show finite element modelling of a simplified LPD emitter represented by two oscillating currents in anti-phase, (a) is modelled without gold masking and (b) with gold masking.(c) Shows the mechanism of radiation in (b) where the dipoles under the metal are suppressed by the reflection of the metal surface. (d) From the numerical solution of Eq. (1) with a photoexcitation term describing an 1 ps Gaussian optical pulse centered at 5 ps the graph shows the dJ/dt for the total carrier population without taking into account the dipole suppression and the dJ/dt calculated only for the carrier population which is not under metal and therefore free to radiate. (e) Shows a plot of Eq. (2) corresponding to the electric field of a dipole radiating at 2 THz at a distance of 1 μm below the metal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagram showing the placement of the laser beam on (a) the bowtie PC emitter and (b) the LPD emitter. (c) Shows the current recorded in the time domain for a PC antenna used as a PC and a LPD emitter. (d) shows THz emission at two opposite boundaries to observe the predicted sign change. (e) shows the Fourier transform of (a) and (b) demonstrating comparable bandwidth between the PC and LPD emitter. The experiment was performed in ambient atmosphere.

Equations (2)

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n e t = μ x ( n e E ) + D 2 n e x 2 n e n h τ 1 n e τ 2
E = 1 2 i π [ e iky 0 Φ ( k ( r 0 + y 0 ) ) e iky 0 Φ ( ± k ( r 0 y 0 ) ) ]

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