Abstract

We investigated an artificial Kerr-medium realized by actuated THz metamaterials. Instead of directly applying E-field inside the medium, we use micromechanical systems actuated by voltage to tune the phase shift. We established that the combined system can have a relationship between the phase shift and the voltage similar to a Kerr cell. A metamaterial Kerr-cell is designed to modulate the transmission phase difference by 0.99°/V2 which is much stronger than natural Kerr crystals. It is attributed to the mechanical tunability of metamaterials with high indices in two orthogonal directions. A Lorentzian model is used in explaining the artificial Kerr cell.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 407–412 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(19), 197401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093903 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics3(8), 461–463 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 147401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express17(1), 136–149 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (R) (2008).
  29. N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(3), 037401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. I. V. Shadrivov, A. B. Kozyrev, D. W. van der Weide, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express16(25), 20266–20271 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 084102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices (Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2000), Chap. 7.
  36. T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  37. L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. A. Q. Liu, Photonic MEMS Devices: Design, Fabrication and Control (CRC Press, 2009).

2011

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. B. Kozyrev, D. W. van der Weide, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express16(25), 20266–20271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(3), 037401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ashburn, P.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Y.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, C. M.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brehm, M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgos, S. P.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caloz, C.

T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, B.-G.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J. L.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Angelis, F.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Waele, R.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Fabrizio, E.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Fan, S.

J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Guo, H. C.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imhof, C.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, K.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, K. Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S. B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-T.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. B. Kozyrev, D. W. van der Weide, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express16(25), 20266–20271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(3), 037401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodera, T.

T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kozyrev, A. B.

Kwak, M. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lheurette, E.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippens, D.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, T.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, A.

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolaenko, A. E.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papasimakis, N.

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, O.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pilon, D. V.

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powell, D. A.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qazilbash, M. M.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, M.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B.

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shadrivov, I. V.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. B. Kozyrev, D. W. van der Weide, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express16(25), 20266–20271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(3), 037401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J. T.

J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sounas, D. L.

T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, A. C.

Stuart, C. T.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Tanoto, H.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

Tao, J. F.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, J. H.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, T.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Weide, D. W.

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weis, P.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S.-J.

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zamek, S.

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zengerle, R.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. B.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Stand-up magnetic metamaterials at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express19(13), 12619–12627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. M.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zharov, A. A.

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(3), 037401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, F.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W. M.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

L. Feng, A. Mizrahi, S. Zamek, Z. Liu, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Metamaterials for enhanced polarization conversion in plasmonic excitation,” ACS Nano5(6), 5100–5106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Wang, F. Garet, K. Blary, E. Lheurette, J. L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Experimental verification of negative refraction for a wedge-type negative index metamaterial operating at terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear electric metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 084102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kodera, D. L. Sounas, and C. Caloz, “Artificial Faraday rotation using a ring metamaterial structure without static magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 024101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

X. Chen, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, K. Jiang, J. B. Pendry, and S. Zhang, “Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light,” Nat. Commun.2, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater.8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater.9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Y. Kang, Y. H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(3), 037401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Nikolaenko, F. De Angelis, S. A. Boden, N. Papasimakis, P. Ashburn, E. Di Fabrizio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Carbon nanotubes in a photonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(14), 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shin, J. T. Shen, and S. Fan, “Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultrahigh effective refractive index over a broad bandwidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep.

F. Zhou, Y. Bao, W. Cao, C. T. Stuart, J. Gu, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Hiding a realistic object using a broadband terahertz invisibility cloak,” Sci. Rep.1, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Science

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (R) (2008).

S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices (Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2000), Chap. 7.

A. Q. Liu, Photonic MEMS Devices: Design, Fabrication and Control (CRC Press, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the artificial Kerr-medium, and (b) the corresponding structure parameters. The metal film thickness and the array period are fixed as t = 0.2 μm and p = 150 μm, respectively. The parameters of the meta-atoms are fixed as a = b = 60 μm, w = 4 μm, and g2 = 5 μm, respectively. Only g1 will be changed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated transmittance spectra for x- and y-polarizations, respectively. (b) For x- and (c) y-polarization, the simulated surface current patterns at 1.309 THz (marked by the vertical dashed line in Fig. 2(a)), respectively. The solid arrows show the polarization of the incident light. Here, g1 is 2.5 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated transmittance spectra for the x-polarization as a function of applied voltage. (b) The corresponding phase difference of the transmitted waves between x- and y-polarizations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Applied voltage dependence of the phase difference between the two orthogonal polarizations at different frequencies in the regimes far from resonance ((a) and (b)) and in the regime very near to the resonance ((c)). Solid lines correspond to the simulated results; dashed, dotted and dash-dot lines correspond to the analytic results using Lorentzian model.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t=1 ia ω ω 0 (Δ g 1 )+i(γ+a)
Δφ= βA 2 ( 1 γ + 1 a 1 aT )α V 2

Metrics