Abstract

Photonic silicon devices are key enabling technologies for next generation High Performance Computers. In this paper, we report the possibility to stack and optically interconnect SOI based photonic chips for future System-In-Package photonic architecture. Combining vertical grating couplers and state-of-the-art flip-chip technology, we demonstrated low loss penalties and wide spectral range optical interconnections between stacked photonic chips.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Kopp and A. Chelnokov, “Fiber grating couplers for silicon nanophotonic circuits: design modeling methodology and fabrication tolerances,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4242–4248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

2006

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Lu and C. Bailey, “Dynamic analysis of flip-chip self-alignment,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28(3), 475–480 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Tsunetsugu, T. Hayashi, K. Katsura, M. Hosoya, N. Sato, and N. Kukutsu, “Accurate, stable, high-speed interconnections using 20- to 30-µm-diameter microsolder bumps,” IEEE. Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A. 20, 76–82 (1997).

Asghari, M.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Augendre, E.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, C.

H. Lu and C. Bailey, “Dynamic analysis of flip-chip self-alignment,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28(3), 475–480 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bakir, B. B.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

Bernabé, S.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chelnokov, A.

C. Kopp and A. Chelnokov, “Fiber grating couplers for silicon nanophotonic circuits: design modeling methodology and fabrication tolerances,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4242–4248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Cunningham, J. E.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

Feng, D.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Hayashi, T.

H. Tsunetsugu, T. Hayashi, K. Katsura, M. Hosoya, N. Sato, and N. Kukutsu, “Accurate, stable, high-speed interconnections using 20- to 30-µm-diameter microsolder bumps,” IEEE. Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A. 20, 76–82 (1997).

Ho, R.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Hosoya, M.

H. Tsunetsugu, T. Hayashi, K. Katsura, M. Hosoya, N. Sato, and N. Kukutsu, “Accurate, stable, high-speed interconnections using 20- to 30-µm-diameter microsolder bumps,” IEEE. Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A. 20, 76–82 (1997).

Katsura, K.

H. Tsunetsugu, T. Hayashi, K. Katsura, M. Hosoya, N. Sato, and N. Kukutsu, “Accurate, stable, high-speed interconnections using 20- to 30-µm-diameter microsolder bumps,” IEEE. Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A. 20, 76–82 (1997).

Kopp, C.

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

C. Kopp and A. Chelnokov, “Fiber grating couplers for silicon nanophotonic circuits: design modeling methodology and fabrication tolerances,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4242–4248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Kukutsu, N.

H. Tsunetsugu, T. Hayashi, K. Katsura, M. Hosoya, N. Sato, and N. Kukutsu, “Accurate, stable, high-speed interconnections using 20- to 30-µm-diameter microsolder bumps,” IEEE. Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A. 20, 76–82 (1997).

Kung, C.-C.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Lee, D. C.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Lemonnier, O.

Lexau, J.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Li, G.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Liang, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Lu, H.

H. Lu and C. Bailey, “Dynamic analysis of flip-chip self-alignment,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28(3), 475–480 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Mitchell, J. G.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Orobtchouk, R.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Porte, H.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

Raj, K.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Sato, N.

H. Tsunetsugu, T. Hayashi, K. Katsura, M. Hosoya, N. Sato, and N. Kukutsu, “Accurate, stable, high-speed interconnections using 20- to 30-µm-diameter microsolder bumps,” IEEE. Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A. 20, 76–82 (1997).

Schrank, F.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

Shubin, I.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Simons, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tekin, T.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

Thacker, H.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Tsunetsugu, H.

H. Tsunetsugu, T. Hayashi, K. Katsura, M. Hosoya, N. Sato, and N. Kukutsu, “Accurate, stable, high-speed interconnections using 20- to 30-µm-diameter microsolder bumps,” IEEE. Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A. 20, 76–82 (1997).

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for oupling between optical vibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

Zheng, X.

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

Zimmermann, L.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, and M. Asghari, “Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 409–414 (2009).

J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, J. Lexau, D. C. Lee, D. Feng, E. Chow, Y. Luo, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, M. Asghari, and J. G. Mitchell, “Integration and packaging of a macrochip with silicon nanophotonics links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 546–558 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.

H. Lu and C. Bailey, “Dynamic analysis of flip-chip self-alignment,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28(3), 475–480 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the assembly processed for tests.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Indium deposition with reflow process and self alignment phenomenon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean residual misalignment as a function of filling factor, for 2 bumps diameters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Grating coupler layers with the guided mode profile and the outcoupled beam from the waveguide towards the fiber through the grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured fibre-to-waveguide grating coupler loss at 14° coupling angle with respect to the wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sketch of Carrier and Bridge chips before flip-chip assembly, showing reference and test paths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of an actual device showing the Indium bumps and the top and bottom GCs. The red arrowed lines describe light path.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Tested device (left) and Coupling loss of the grating-to-grating interconnection over the 1500-1600 nm spectral range (right).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Definition of offset parameters for grating-to-grating coupling.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Influence of transverse offset on the maximum coupling range.

Equations (1)

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k sin ( θ ) + p 2 π Λ = β

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