Abstract

Using a low power beam of ultrashort THz pulses that propagate in the ambient laboratory environment we have measured the rotational signatures of small molecule vapors at frequencies within the atmospheric transmission windows. We investigate two types of apparatus. In the first type the THz beam propagates along a 6.7 meter round trip path that is external to the spectrometer, and which contains a long sample tube (5.4 meter round trip path) that holds the analyte vapor. The environment of the tube is controlled to simulate dry or humid conditions. In the second apparatus the THz beam propagates over a much longer 170 meter round trip path with analyte vapor contained in a relatively short 1.2 meter round trip path sample chamber. We describe the rotational signatures for each apparatus in the presence of the strong interference from water vapor absorption. For the shorter path long-tube apparatus we find that the peak detection sensitivity is sufficient to resolve a 1% absorption feature. For the more challenging 170 meter path apparatus we find that the peak detection sensitivity is sufficient to resolve a 3-5% absorption feature. The experiments presented here represent a first step towards using ultrashort THz pulses for coherent broad band detection of small molecule gases and vapors under ambient conditions.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2011

Y. Yang, A. Shutler, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurement of the transmission of the atmosphere from 0.2 to 2 THz,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8830–8838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, M. Mandeghar, and D. Grischkowsky, “Broad-band THz pulse transmission through the atmosphere,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 264–273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath, “An efficient analytical approach for calculating line mixing in atmospheric remote sensing applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(6), 980–989 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. C. De Lucia, D. A. Petkie, and H. O. Everitt, “A double resonance approach to submillimeter terahertz remote sensing at atmospheric pressure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(2), 163–170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Praser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, “Laboratory measurements of dry air atmospheric absorption with a millimeter wave cavity ring down spectrometer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 108(2), 256–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. Ookuma, and T. Itanani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Bühler, and K. Künzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350 GHz and model calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. R. Pardo, E. Serabyn, and J. Cernicharo, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino Conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 68(4), 419–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, and E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): An improved model for millimeter/submillimeter applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(12), 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Gopalsami and A. C. Raptis, “Millimeter-wave radar sensing of airborne chemicals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(4), 646–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67(3), 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60(5), 883–890 (1998).Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/
[CrossRef]

1996

1991

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(14), 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic teraHz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with TeraHz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. J. Liebe, “MPM-an atmospheric millimeter-wave propagation model,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 10(6), 631–650 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. Bocquet, G. Wlodarczak, A. Bauer, and J. Demaison, “The sub-millimeter wave rotational spectrum of methyl cyanide: Analysis of the ground and low-lying excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127(2), 382–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

H. J. Liebe, “The atmospheric water vapor continuum below 300 GHz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(2), 207–227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, and A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0K, 1.2K, 0.3K, and 0.1K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

1978

R. E. Hills, A. S. Webster, D. A. Alston, P. L. R. Mores, C. C. Zammit, D. H. Martin, D. P. Rice, and E. I. Robson, “Absolute measurements of atmospheric emission and absorption in the range 100-1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18(5-6), 819–825 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972

V. Ya. Ryadov and N. I. Furashov, “Investigation of the spectrum of radiowave absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 1.15 to 1.5 mm range,” Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. 15(10), 1124–1128 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

1966

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. I. Fedosyev, “Measurement of atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Isvestya VUZ Radiosphsica 9, 624–627 (1966).

1950

M. Kessler, H. Ring, R. Tramborulo, and W. Gordy, “Microwave spectra and molecular structure of methyl cyanide and isomethyl cyanide,” Phys. Rev. 79(1), 54–56 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Alston, D. A.

R. E. Hills, A. S. Webster, D. A. Alston, P. L. R. Mores, C. C. Zammit, D. H. Martin, D. P. Rice, and E. I. Robson, “Absolute measurements of atmospheric emission and absorption in the range 100-1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18(5-6), 819–825 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67(3), 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Bühler, and K. Künzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350 GHz and model calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Bocquet, G. Wlodarczak, A. Bauer, and J. Demaison, “The sub-millimeter wave rotational spectrum of methyl cyanide: Analysis of the ground and low-lying excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127(2), 382–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath, “An efficient analytical approach for calculating line mixing in atmospheric remote sensing applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(6), 980–989 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bocquet, R.

R. Bocquet, G. Wlodarczak, A. Bauer, and J. Demaison, “The sub-millimeter wave rotational spectrum of methyl cyanide: Analysis of the ground and low-lying excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127(2), 382–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boone, C. D.

C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath, “An efficient analytical approach for calculating line mixing in atmospheric remote sensing applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(6), 980–989 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bühler, S.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Bühler, and K. Künzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350 GHz and model calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burch, D. E.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cernicharo, J.

J. R. Pardo, E. Serabyn, and J. Cernicharo, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino Conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 68(4), 419–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, and E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): An improved model for millimeter/submillimeter applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(12), 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

Chris Brenner, D.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60(5), 883–890 (1998).Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Davidson, A. W.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, and A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0K, 1.2K, 0.3K, and 0.1K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

De Lucia, F. C.

F. C. De Lucia, D. A. Petkie, and H. O. Everitt, “A double resonance approach to submillimeter terahertz remote sensing at atmospheric pressure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(2), 163–170 (2009).
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A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, “Laboratory measurements of dry air atmospheric absorption with a millimeter wave cavity ring down spectrometer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 108(2), 256–276 (2007).
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Delitsky, M. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60(5), 883–890 (1998).Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/
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Demaison, J.

R. Bocquet, G. Wlodarczak, A. Bauer, and J. Demaison, “The sub-millimeter wave rotational spectrum of methyl cyanide: Analysis of the ground and low-lying excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127(2), 382–389 (1988).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Dryagin, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. I. Fedosyev, “Measurement of atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Isvestya VUZ Radiosphsica 9, 624–627 (1966).

Egawa, K.

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. Ookuma, and T. Itanani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

F. C. De Lucia, D. A. Petkie, and H. O. Everitt, “A double resonance approach to submillimeter terahertz remote sensing at atmospheric pressure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(2), 163–170 (2009).
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Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Fattinger, C.

Fedosyev, L. I.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. I. Fedosyev, “Measurement of atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Isvestya VUZ Radiosphsica 9, 624–627 (1966).

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Fraser, G. T.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
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Furashov, N. I.

V. Ya. Ryadov and N. I. Furashov, “Investigation of the spectrum of radiowave absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 1.15 to 1.5 mm range,” Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. 15(10), 1124–1128 (1972).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Godon, M.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Bühler, and K. Künzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350 GHz and model calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gopalsami, N.

N. Gopalsami and A. C. Raptis, “Millimeter-wave radar sensing of airborne chemicals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(4), 646–653 (2001).
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Gordon, E.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gordy, W.

M. Kessler, H. Ring, R. Tramborulo, and W. Gordy, “Microwave spectra and molecular structure of methyl cyanide and isomethyl cyanide,” Phys. Rev. 79(1), 54–56 (1950).
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Grischkowsky, D.

Y. Yang, M. Mandeghar, and D. Grischkowsky, “Broad-band THz pulse transmission through the atmosphere,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 264–273 (2011).
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Y. Yang, A. Shutler, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurement of the transmission of the atmosphere from 0.2 to 2 THz,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8830–8838 (2011).
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R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Foreign and self broadened rotational linewidths of high temperature water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 317–322 (1999).
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H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(14), 1834–1837 (1991).
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D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with TeraHz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
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M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic teraHz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
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Harde, H.

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(14), 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. Ookuma, and T. Itanani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
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Hills, R. E.

R. E. Hills, A. S. Webster, D. A. Alston, P. L. R. Mores, C. C. Zammit, D. H. Martin, D. P. Rice, and E. I. Robson, “Absolute measurements of atmospheric emission and absorption in the range 100-1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18(5-6), 819–825 (1978).
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Itanani, T.

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. Ookuma, and T. Itanani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
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Jacobsen, R. H.

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67(3), 379–390 (1998).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Johnson, C.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, and A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0K, 1.2K, 0.3K, and 0.1K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

Karpowicz, N.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(14), 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with TeraHz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, M.

M. Kessler, H. Ring, R. Tramborulo, and W. Gordy, “Microwave spectra and molecular structure of methyl cyanide and isomethyl cyanide,” Phys. Rev. 79(1), 54–56 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Kislyakov, A. G.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. I. Fedosyev, “Measurement of atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Isvestya VUZ Radiosphsica 9, 624–627 (1966).

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, T.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Bühler, and K. Künzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350 GHz and model calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kukin, L. M.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. I. Fedosyev, “Measurement of atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Isvestya VUZ Radiosphsica 9, 624–627 (1966).

Künzi, K.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Bühler, and K. Künzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350 GHz and model calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Liebe, H. J.

H. J. Liebe, “MPM-an atmospheric millimeter-wave propagation model,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 10(6), 631–650 (1989).
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H. J. Liebe, “The atmospheric water vapor continuum below 300 GHz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(2), 207–227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
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Low, F. J.

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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Praser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Praser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
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R. E. Hills, A. S. Webster, D. A. Alston, P. L. R. Mores, C. C. Zammit, D. H. Martin, D. P. Rice, and E. I. Robson, “Absolute measurements of atmospheric emission and absorption in the range 100-1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18(5-6), 819–825 (1978).
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J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, and E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): An improved model for millimeter/submillimeter applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(12), 1683–1694 (2001).
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Siegrist, K. E.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Praser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
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Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Praser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tramborulo, R.

M. Kessler, H. Ring, R. Tramborulo, and W. Gordy, “Microwave spectra and molecular structure of methyl cyanide and isomethyl cyanide,” Phys. Rev. 79(1), 54–56 (1950).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic teraHz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with TeraHz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, K. A.

C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath, “An efficient analytical approach for calculating line mixing in atmospheric remote sensing applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(6), 980–989 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Webster, A. S.

R. E. Hills, A. S. Webster, D. A. Alston, P. L. R. Mores, C. C. Zammit, D. H. Martin, D. P. Rice, and E. I. Robson, “Absolute measurements of atmospheric emission and absorption in the range 100-1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18(5-6), 819–825 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weisstein, E. W.

Wlodarczak, G.

R. Bocquet, G. Wlodarczak, A. Bauer, and J. Demaison, “The sub-millimeter wave rotational spectrum of methyl cyanide: Analysis of the ground and low-lying excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127(2), 382–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, M. Mandeghar, and D. Grischkowsky, “Broad-band THz pulse transmission through the atmosphere,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 264–273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, A. Shutler, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurement of the transmission of the atmosphere from 0.2 to 2 THz,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8830–8838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zammit, C. C.

R. E. Hills, A. S. Webster, D. A. Alston, P. L. R. Mores, C. C. Zammit, D. H. Martin, D. P. Rice, and E. I. Robson, “Absolute measurements of atmospheric emission and absorption in the range 100-1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18(5-6), 819–825 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67(3), 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

F. C. De Lucia, D. A. Petkie, and H. O. Everitt, “A double resonance approach to submillimeter terahertz remote sensing at atmospheric pressure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(2), 163–170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, and E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): An improved model for millimeter/submillimeter applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(12), 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

N. Gopalsami and A. C. Raptis, “Millimeter-wave radar sensing of airborne chemicals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(4), 646–653 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic teraHz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.

Y. Yang, M. Mandeghar, and D. Grischkowsky, “Broad-band THz pulse transmission through the atmosphere,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 264–273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

R. E. Hills, A. S. Webster, D. A. Alston, P. L. R. Mores, C. C. Zammit, D. H. Martin, D. P. Rice, and E. I. Robson, “Absolute measurements of atmospheric emission and absorption in the range 100-1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18(5-6), 819–825 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

H. J. Liebe, “The atmospheric water vapor continuum below 300 GHz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(2), 207–227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Liebe, “MPM-an atmospheric millimeter-wave propagation model,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 10(6), 631–650 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Isvestya VUZ Radiosphsica

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. I. Fedosyev, “Measurement of atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Isvestya VUZ Radiosphsica 9, 624–627 (1966).

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

R. Bocquet, G. Wlodarczak, A. Bauer, and J. Demaison, “The sub-millimeter wave rotational spectrum of methyl cyanide: Analysis of the ground and low-lying excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127(2), 382–389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60(5), 883–890 (1998).Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Brenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath, “An efficient analytical approach for calculating line mixing in atmospheric remote sensing applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(6), 980–989 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Bühler, and K. Künzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350 GHz and model calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Praser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Pardo, E. Serabyn, and J. Cernicharo, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino Conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 68(4), 419–433 (2001).
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A. I. Meshkov and F. C. De Lucia, “Laboratory measurements of dry air atmospheric absorption with a millimeter wave cavity ring down spectrometer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 108(2), 256–276 (2007).
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T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. Ookuma, and T. Itanani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
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Opt. Eng.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, and A. W. Davidson, “Germanium and germanium-diamond bolometers operated at 4.2 K, 2.0K, 1.2K, 0.3K, and 0.1K,” Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

M. Kessler, H. Ring, R. Tramborulo, and W. Gordy, “Microwave spectra and molecular structure of methyl cyanide and isomethyl cyanide,” Phys. Rev. 79(1), 54–56 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(14), 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

H. B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging for Defense and Security Applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radio Phys. Quantum Electron.

V. Ya. Ryadov and N. I. Furashov, “Investigation of the spectrum of radiowave absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 1.15 to 1.5 mm range,” Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. 15(10), 1124–1128 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. E. Burch and D. A. Gryvnak, “Continuum absorption by water vapor in the infrared and millimeter regions,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, T.D. Wilkerson, and L.H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic Press, 1980).

F. C. De Lucia, “Spectroscopy in the THz spectral region,” in Sensing with THz Radiation, D. Mittleman ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (John Wiley, New York, 1986), Chaps. 2 and 7.

J. S. Melinger, A. Shutler, Y. Yang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Long path THz detection of small molecule vapors in the atmospheric transparency windows.” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO-2011 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2011), CThEE7.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

This figure is a revised version of Fig. 10 of [1] with the caption, “Spectral plots of the near-millimeter attenuation by the atmospheric H2O at sea level. H2O density = 5.9 g/m3. Curve A represents attenuation calculated by summing the theoretical contributions by all the lines and adding the continuum represented by curve B. The H2O density corresponds to a relative humidity of 34% at 20 °C. The symbols represent experimental measurements of several groups which are referenced in Ref [1]. The blue lines with circled numbers indicate the regions of relative transparency that overlap with the THz-TDS bandwidth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Long-tube apparatus based on a standard THz-TDS spectrometer. A pair of removable mirrors deflects the THz beam out of the spectrometer and into Box #2. The beam then enters a 5.4 meter round trip path length enclosed tube for vapor measurements. The THz pulse returned to the receiver is gated by the 2nd pulse (P3) down train from the pulse that excites the transmitter (P1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic from the top (x-z plane) of the 170 meter round trip long path apparatus consisting of 10 mirrors. Insets: Side view (y-z plane) of the mirrors. The solid lines show the path of the THz beam deflected out of and into the spectrometer by the mirror pair M1 and M10. The position of the THz-TDS spectrometer is shown in the inset and lies underneath M2. The THz pulse returned to the receiver is gated by the 52nd pulse down the laser pulse train from the excitation pulse. The indicated angles are θ1 = 5.4°, θ2 = 19°, θ3 = 77°, θ4 = 2.4°, and ϕ = 1.25°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental waveforms (top) and spectral amplitudes (bottom). The input THz pulse to M1 and spectrum are indicated by the bottom black curves. The weak strength of the observed water lines indicates that the humidity was less than 0.5% RH in the dry-air purged Box No. 1. The THz pulse/spectrum returned to the receiver after propagating over the 6.7 meter path at 51% RH in the long-tube apparatus are indicated by the middle red curves and multiplied by a factor of 4. The THz pulse/spectrum after the 170 meter propagation at 50% RH in the long-path apparatus are shown by the top blue curves and multiplied by a factor of 10. For clarity, the red and blue curves are offset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal waveform (top) and spectral amplitude (bottom) for CH3CN contained in the long-tube chamber at a concentration of approximately 200 ppm. The RH in the chamber was 14%. The inset shows the time base expanded in the echo region. The saturated absorption dips in the spectral amplitude are due to the strong water vapor rotational transitions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Top)Amplitude absorbance spectra for CH3CN vapor contained in the long -tube at three concentrations: 200 ppm (top blue curve), 50 ppm (middle red curve), and 12 ppm (bottom black curve). Each curve represents the average of four measurements. The relative humidity for each measurement was 51%. (Bottom) Calculated absorbance spectrum for CH3CN as described in the text. The solid black curve is the sum of the contributions from CH3CN in the ground vibrational state and excited vibrational state v8 = 1. The solid gray curve is the calculated spectrum from CH3CN(v8 = 1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top panel: Spectral amplitudes for the reference (top black curve) and signal (red curve) where D2O liquid drops are introduced to the sample tube corresponding to a vapor concentration of 750 ppm and at RH = 51%. The blue arrows indicate absorption resonances due to analyte vapor. The areas of complete absorption are due to strong water vapor lines. The inset shows absorption resonances in the expanded higher frequency range. Bottom panel: Amplitude absorbance spectrum derived from the curves of the top panel. The black curve is the experimental absorbance. The strong modulations near 0.55 THz and 0.75 THz are due to the saturated absorption from water vapor. The red curve is a fit to the experimental absorbance using line frequencies and line strengths for HDO and D2O contained in the JPL catalog. The black arrow indicates an isolated absorption due to D2O.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral amplitudes for the reference (upper black curve) and the sample chamber containing CH3CN (lower red curve) for the 170 meter path measurement. The concentration of acetonitrile is 800 ppm in the sample tube. The laboratory relative humidity was 50%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Top) Amplitude absorbance spectrum for CH3CN vapor at 800 ppm in the 1.2 m (round-trip) sample chamber measured using the 170 meter long-path apparatus. The laboratory relative humidity was 50%. The hatched areas indicate regions of complete water vapor absorption. The curve is the average of six signal and reference measurements (Bottom) Noise baseline from the average of six pairs of reference measurements. The red horizontal bars provide a qualitative measure of the noise level in the amplitude absorbance.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental amplitude absorbance spectrum (black curve) where D2O liquid is introduced into the 1.2 m (round-trip) sample chamber to give a concentration of approximately 3000 ppm. The relative humidity in the laboratory and sample chamber is 50%. The hatched areas indicate regions of complete absorption by water vapor. The red curve is a fit to the experimental spectrum using rotational line frequencies and line intensities for HDO and D2O contained in the JPL catalog. The fit indicates a relative fraction of HDO:D2O of 2.4:1.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α J,K v (ν)= S J,K v g(ν)N P o ,
g(ν)= 1 π [ Δν ( ν J,K v) 2 +Δ ν 2 ],
α(ν) J,K [ α J,K v=0 (ν)+ α J,K v8=1 (ν)].
Z Vib = i [ 1exp( E vib kT ) ] d i ,
S J,K v (c m 1 /molecule×c m 2 )= I a S J,K v (n m 2 MHz) 2.99792458× 10 18 .
I(D) =  S w E 1 ( w ) 2   +  E 2 (w) 2  + 2 E 1 (w) E 2 ( w )cos( k w D),

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