Abstract

For high precision applications of optical microscopes, it is critical to achieve symmetrical angular illumination intensity at the sample plane, in addition to uniform spatial irradiance achieved by Köhler illumination. A correlation between the angular illumination asymmetry and the contrast in the image of a line grating target was demonstrated as the target is scanned through focus. Using this correlation, we present a novel, yet simple method of experimentally evaluating the angular illumination asymmetry (ANILAS) at the sample plane of an optical microscope across the field of view. This ANILAS map is expected to be a useful method for assessing the illumination condition of optical systems.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Koehler, “New method of illumination for phomicrographical purposes,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 14, 261–262 (1894).
  2. P. J. Evennett, “Köhler iIllumination centenary: a collection of papers detailing Köhler illumination,” (Royal Microscopical Society, 1994), pp. 1–30.
  3. C. Progler, H. Dua, and G. Wells, “Potential causes of across field CD variation,” Proc. SPIE 3051, 660–671 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Borodovsky, “Impact of local partial coherence variations on exposure tool performance,” Proc. SPIE 2440, 750–770 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. P. Kirk and C. J. Progler, “Pupil illumination: in situ measurement of partial coherence,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 281–288 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Sato, S. Tanaka, T. Fujisawa, and S. Inoue, “Measurement of effective source shift using a grating-pinhole mask,” Proc. SPIE 3679, 99–107 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. McIntyre and A. R. Neureuther, “Linear phase ring illumination monitor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2800–2805 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).
  10. J. Bendik, Y. Yamaguchia, L. G. Finknerb, and A. H. Smitha, “A simulation performance framework using in-situ metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 930–941 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, “Scatterfield microscopy for extending the limits of image-based optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4248–4257 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Marx, “Images of strips on and trenches in substrates,” Appl. Opt. 46(23), 5571–5587 (2007).
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  15. R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Attota, R. M. Silver, and J. Potzick, “Optical illumination and critical dimension analysis using the through-focus focus metric method,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 62890Q (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science no. IV,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401–407 (1836).

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, and J. Potzick, “Optical illumination and critical dimension analysis using the through-focus focus metric method,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 62890Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bendik, Y. Yamaguchia, L. G. Finknerb, and A. H. Smitha, “A simulation performance framework using in-situ metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 930–941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. McIntyre and A. R. Neureuther, “Linear phase ring illumination monitor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2800–2805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

1999 (1)

K. Sato, S. Tanaka, T. Fujisawa, and S. Inoue, “Measurement of effective source shift using a grating-pinhole mask,” Proc. SPIE 3679, 99–107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. P. Kirk and C. J. Progler, “Pupil illumination: in situ measurement of partial coherence,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 281–288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Progler, H. Dua, and G. Wells, “Potential causes of across field CD variation,” Proc. SPIE 3051, 660–671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Borodovsky, “Impact of local partial coherence variations on exposure tool performance,” Proc. SPIE 2440, 750–770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1894 (1)

A. Koehler, “New method of illumination for phomicrographical purposes,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 14, 261–262 (1894).

1836 (1)

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science no. IV,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401–407 (1836).

Atkinson, C.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Attota, R.

R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, “Scatterfield microscopy for extending the limits of image-based optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4248–4257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, and J. Potzick, “Optical illumination and critical dimension analysis using the through-focus focus metric method,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 62890Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

Barnes, B. M.

R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, “Scatterfield microscopy for extending the limits of image-based optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4248–4257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bendik, J.

J. Bendik, Y. Yamaguchia, L. G. Finknerb, and A. H. Smitha, “A simulation performance framework using in-situ metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 930–941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, M.

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

Borodovsky, Y.

Y. Borodovsky, “Impact of local partial coherence variations on exposure tool performance,” Proc. SPIE 2440, 750–770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, M.

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

Dua, H.

C. Progler, H. Dua, and G. Wells, “Potential causes of across field CD variation,” Proc. SPIE 3051, 660–671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finknerb, L. G.

J. Bendik, Y. Yamaguchia, L. G. Finknerb, and A. H. Smitha, “A simulation performance framework using in-situ metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 930–941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fruga, C. H.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, T.

K. Sato, S. Tanaka, T. Fujisawa, and S. Inoue, “Measurement of effective source shift using a grating-pinhole mask,” Proc. SPIE 3679, 99–107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Germer, T. A.

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Godfrey, D.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Howard, L.

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilzhoefer, J. R.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

K. Sato, S. Tanaka, T. Fujisawa, and S. Inoue, “Measurement of effective source shift using a grating-pinhole mask,” Proc. SPIE 3679, 99–107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jun, J.

R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, “Scatterfield microscopy for extending the limits of image-based optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4248–4257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

Kirk, J. P.

J. P. Kirk and C. J. Progler, “Pupil illumination: in situ measurement of partial coherence,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 281–288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, A.

A. Koehler, “New method of illumination for phomicrographical purposes,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 14, 261–262 (1894).

Larrabee, R.

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

Marx, E.

R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, “Scatterfield microscopy for extending the limits of image-based optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4248–4257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Marx, “Images of strips on and trenches in substrates,” Appl. Opt. 46(23), 5571–5587 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

McIntyre, G.

G. McIntyre and A. R. Neureuther, “Linear phase ring illumination monitor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2800–2805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neureuther, A. R.

G. McIntyre and A. R. Neureuther, “Linear phase ring illumination monitor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2800–2805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Potzick, J.

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, and J. Potzick, “Optical illumination and critical dimension analysis using the through-focus focus metric method,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 62890Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Progler, C.

C. Progler, H. Dua, and G. Wells, “Potential causes of across field CD variation,” Proc. SPIE 3051, 660–671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Progler, C. J.

J. P. Kirk and C. J. Progler, “Pupil illumination: in situ measurement of partial coherence,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 281–288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Renwick, S. P.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, S. Tanaka, T. Fujisawa, and S. Inoue, “Measurement of effective source shift using a grating-pinhole mask,” Proc. SPIE 3679, 99–107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silver, R. M.

R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, “Scatterfield microscopy for extending the limits of image-based optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4248–4257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, and J. Potzick, “Optical illumination and critical dimension analysis using the through-focus focus metric method,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 62890Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

Slonaker, S. D.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smitha, A. H.

J. Bendik, Y. Yamaguchia, L. G. Finknerb, and A. H. Smitha, “A simulation performance framework using in-situ metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 930–941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, Y. J.

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, M.

R. M. Silver, B. M. Barnes, R. Attota, J. Jun, M. Stocker, E. Marx, and H. J. Patrick, “Scatterfield microscopy for extending the limits of image-based optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 46(20), 4248–4257 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

Stocker, M. T.

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, H. F.

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science no. IV,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401–407 (1836).

Tan, C. L.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

K. Sato, S. Tanaka, T. Fujisawa, and S. Inoue, “Measurement of effective source shift using a grating-pinhole mask,” Proc. SPIE 3679, 99–107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wells, G.

C. Progler, H. Dua, and G. Wells, “Potential causes of across field CD variation,” Proc. SPIE 3051, 660–671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchia, Y.

J. Bendik, Y. Yamaguchia, L. G. Finknerb, and A. H. Smitha, “A simulation performance framework using in-situ metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 930–941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. R. Microsc. Soc. (1)

A. Koehler, “New method of illumination for phomicrographical purposes,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 14, 261–262 (1894).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

G. McIntyre and A. R. Neureuther, “Linear phase ring illumination monitor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2800–2805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. (1)

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science no. IV,” Philos. Mag. 9, 401–407 (1836).

Proc. SPIE (12)

R. M. Silver, M. Stocker, R. Attota, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Calibration strategies for overlay and registration metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 103–120 (2003).

J. Bendik, Y. Yamaguchia, L. G. Finknerb, and A. H. Smitha, “A simulation performance framework using in-situ metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 930–941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Sohn, B. M. Barnes, L. Howard, R. M. Silver, R. Attota, and M. T. Stocker, “Köhler illumination for high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61523S, 61523S-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Progler, H. Dua, and G. Wells, “Potential causes of across field CD variation,” Proc. SPIE 3051, 660–671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Borodovsky, “Impact of local partial coherence variations on exposure tool performance,” Proc. SPIE 2440, 750–770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kirk and C. J. Progler, “Pupil illumination: in situ measurement of partial coherence,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 281–288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, S. Tanaka, T. Fujisawa, and S. Inoue, “Measurement of effective source shift using a grating-pinhole mask,” Proc. SPIE 3679, 99–107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, C. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. R. Ilzhoefer, C. Atkinson, S. P. Renwick, S. D. Slonaker, D. Godfrey, and C. H. Fruga, “Illumination pupil gill measurement and analysis and its application in scanner V-H bias characterization for 130nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 45–56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, M. Bishop, E. Marx, J. Jun, M. Stocker, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “Evaluation of new in-chip and arrayed line overlay target designs,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 395–402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silver, R. Attota, M. Stocker, M. Bishop, J. Jun, E. Marx, M. Davidson, and R. Larrabee, “High resolution optical overlay metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 78–95 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, M. Bishop, R. Larrabee, M. T. Stocker, and L. Howard, “Application of through-focus focus-metric analysis in high resolution optical metrology,” Proc. SPIE 5752, 1441–1449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Attota, R. M. Silver, and J. Potzick, “Optical illumination and critical dimension analysis using the through-focus focus metric method,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 62890Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. J. Evennett, “Köhler iIllumination centenary: a collection of papers detailing Köhler illumination,” (Royal Microscopical Society, 1994), pp. 1–30.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A simplified schematic of Köhler illumination for reflection microscope with the aperture stop at the back focal plane. (b) Homogeneous angular illumination at the sample plane for (a). (c) Kohler illumination with aperture stop displaced axially and radially from the back focal plane. (d) Inhomogeneous angular illumination at the sample plane for (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of (a) Asymmetric and (b) Symmetric angular illumination conditions. Simulated intensity profiles of an isolated line for (c) Asymmetric and (d) Symmetric illuminations. NAI = negative angles of illumination, PAI = positive angles of illumination, Line width = 200 nm, Line height = 200 nm, Illumination NA = 0.4, collection NA = 0.8, Wavelength = 546 nm, and Si line on Si substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Back focal plane intensity is represented by a matrix of numbers in the simulations. Simulations were made using three fill factors at the back focal plane. (a) Complete circular, (b) right semicircular and (c) left semicircular fill factors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated through-focus image intensity profiles of a line grating. The lower overlapping curves in each window are the intensity profiles for only negative and positive angles of illuminations. The above curve is the intensity profile for all the angles of illumination. Each window is at a different focus position with a focus step height of 200 nm. X (0 nm to 600 nm) and Y (0 to 0.5) axes scales are kept constant for all the windows. The profile of only one pitch is shown in the figure. Input parameters for the simulation: Line width = 200 nm, Line height = 200 nm, Pitch = 600 nm, Illumination NA = 0.4, Collection NA = 0.8, Illum. Wavelength = 546 nm, Si line on Si substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A typical simulated focus metric (FM) signature for line array exhibiting proximity effects. Insets are intensity profiles at the indicated focus positions. The optical image has high contrast at peaks 1 and 2, while it has very low contrast at point “a” as shown by an arrow. Parameters for the simulation: Line width = 140 nm, Line height = 200 nm, Pitch = 600 nm, Illumination NA = 0.4, NA = 0.8, Wavelength = 546 nm. Si lines on Si substrate. Zero position represents top of the substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic intensity profiles for the NAI, the PAI, and all the angles of illumination at the focus position “a” (in Fig. 5). Percentage of the left-half intensity compared to the right half is indicated in the figure. Length of the profile equals to one pitch.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The FM signatures with reduced right-half back focal plane intensity. Percentage of the right-half intensity compared to the left half is indicated in the figure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The experimental evaluation of the illumination (ANILAS). The right-side figure is a two-dimensional projection of the left-side three-dimensional figure. (a) Poorly aligned microscope and (b) Well aligned microscope. X and Y are distance axes representing 40 μm of the field of view in both (a) and (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental verification of the ANILAS map for the poorly aligned microscope. (a) and (c) are the optical images of the horizontal and the vertical line gratings, respectively. (b) and (d) are the intensity profiles at the locations shown by rectangles in (a) and (c). Red circles / ellipses represent the location of best symmetry and agrees with the analysis shown in Fig. 8(a).

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