Abstract

We demonstrated a unique monolithic integration of Fresnel elliptical zone plate (EZP) objective on a 2-axis staggered vertical comb-drive micromirror with 500μm by 800μm surface area via direct patterning of reflective binary phase modulation elements on a silicon chip. The need for focusing optics is thus obviated, simplifying the micro-endoscope assembly and improving its form factor. The design of binary phase EZP was guided by simulations based on FFT based Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction model. For dual-axis scanning angles up to 9º by 9º at the image plane, the simulated diffracted Airy disks on a spatial map have been demonstrated to vary from 10.5μm to 28.6μm. Micromirrors scanning ±9º (optical) about both axes are patterned with elliptical zones designed for 7mm focal length and 20þ off-axis 635-nm illumination using 635nm laser. Videos of samples acquired with ~15μm lateral resolution over 1mm × 0.35mm field of view (FOV) at 5.0 frames/second using the device in both transmission and reflectance modes bench-top single-fiber laser scanning confocal microscope confirmed the applicability of the device to micro-endoscopy.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (2)

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Bish, J. W. Tunnell, and X. Zhang, “MEMS scanner enabled real-time depth sensitive hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24101–24108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 505–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao and J. Jahns, “Comprehensive focusing analysis of various Fresnel zone plates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(4), 561–571 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 706–708 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Y. T. Pan, T. Q. Xie, C. W. Du, S. Bastacky, S. Meyers, and M. L. Zeidel, “Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2485–2487 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1535–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Krishnamoorthy, D. Lee, and O. Solgaard, “Self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives for micromirror actuation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(4), 458–464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

G. D. J. Su, S. S. Lee, and M. C. Wu, “Optical scanners realized by surface-micromachined vertical torsion mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 587–589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Montgomery and S. E. Wilson, “Intraabdominal abscesses: image-guided diagnosis and therapy,” Clin. Infect. Dis. 23(1), 28–36 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

L. Lin, S. Lee, K. Pister, and M. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Avritscher, R.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastacky, S.

Bish, S.

Cao, Q.

Cha, S.

Delen, N.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Du, C. W.

Fainman, Y.

Fedder, G.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1535–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hah, D.

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 505–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heng, X.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooker, B.

Jahns, J.

Kino, G. S.

Krishnamoorthy, U.

U. Krishnamoorthy, D. Lee, and O. Solgaard, “Self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives for micromirror actuation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(4), 458–464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, K.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

Lane, N.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Krishnamoorthy, D. Lee, and O. Solgaard, “Self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives for micromirror actuation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(4), 458–464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Lee, S.

L. Lin, S. Lee, K. Pister, and M. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

G. D. J. Su, S. S. Lee, and M. C. Wu, “Optical scanners realized by surface-micromachined vertical torsion mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 587–589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, S. Lee, K. Pister, and M. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. C.

Madoff, D. C.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDowell, E. J.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyers, S.

Montgomery, R. S.

R. S. Montgomery and S. E. Wilson, “Intraabdominal abscesses: image-guided diagnosis and therapy,” Clin. Infect. Dis. 23(1), 28–36 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. D.

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 505–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1535–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y. T.

Patterson, P. R.

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 505–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

Pister, K.

L. Lin, S. Lee, K. Pister, and M. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ra, H.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Shin, H. J.

Solgaard, O.

H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9113–9122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Krishnamoorthy, D. Lee, and O. Solgaard, “Self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives for micromirror actuation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(4), 458–464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, G. D. J.

G. D. J. Su, S. S. Lee, and M. C. Wu, “Optical scanners realized by surface-micromachined vertical torsion mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 587–589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P. C.

Toshiyoshi, H.

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 505–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tunnell, J. W.

Uhr, J. W.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Bish, J. W. Tunnell, and X. Zhang, “MEMS scanner enabled real-time depth sensitive hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24101–24108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, S. E.

R. S. Montgomery and S. E. Wilson, “Intraabdominal abscesses: image-guided diagnosis and therapy,” Clin. Infect. Dis. 23(1), 28–36 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

L. Lin, S. Lee, K. Pister, and M. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 505–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. J. Su, S. S. Lee, and M. C. Wu, “Optical scanners realized by surface-micromachined vertical torsion mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 587–589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1535–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, T.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1535–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, T. Q.

Yang, C.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

Yu, T. K.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeidel, M. L.

Zhang, X.

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Bish, J. W. Tunnell, and X. Zhang, “MEMS scanner enabled real-time depth sensitive hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24101–24108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices 12(2), 223–233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Infect. Dis. (1)

R. S. Montgomery and S. E. Wilson, “Intraabdominal abscesses: image-guided diagnosis and therapy,” Clin. Infect. Dis. 23(1), 28–36 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 1535–1536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(3), 505–513 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. D. J. Su, S. S. Lee, and M. C. Wu, “Optical scanners realized by surface-micromachined vertical torsion mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 587–589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, S. Lee, K. Pister, and M. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1445–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

U. Krishnamoorthy, D. Lee, and O. Solgaard, “Self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives for micromirror actuation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(4), 458–464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

K. Kumar, K. Hoshino, H. J. Shin, R. Richards-Kortum, and X. Zhang, “High-reflectivity two-axis vertical comb drive microscanners for confocal imaging applications,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications, Big Sky, MT, 2006, 120–121.

S. Inoué, “Foundations of confocal scanned imaging in light microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Springer 2006) pp. 1–19.

K. Kumar and X. Zhang, “CMOS-compatible 2-axis self-aligned vertical comb-driven micromirror for large field-of-view microendoscopes,” in International Conference MicroElectroMechenical Systems (MEMS 2009), Sorrento, Italy, 2009, 1015–1018.

K. Kumar, H. Cao, and X. Zhang, “Monolithic integration binary-phase Fresnel zone plate objectives on 2-axis scanning micromirrors for compact microendoscopes,” Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems Workshop, South Carolina, June 1–5, 2008, pp. 292–295.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, 1970).

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