Abstract

We demonstrate the multifolding Origami manufacture of elastically-deformable Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) membranes that reversibly color-tune across the full visible spectrum without compromising their peak reflectance. Multilayer films composed of alternating transparent rubbers are fixed over a 300 μm wide pinhole and deformed by pressure into a concave shape. Pressure-induced color tuning from the near-IR to the blue arises from both changes in thickness of the constituent layers and from tilting of the curved DBR surfaces. The layer thickness and color distribution upon deformation, the band-gap variation and the repeatability of cyclic color tuning, are mapped through micro-spectroscopy. Such spatially-dependent thinning of the film under elastic deformation produces spatial chirps in the color, and are shown to allow reconstruction of complex 3D strain distributions.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. U. Scherf, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Chen, D. Jiang, and S. Xie, “Chirped and phase-sampled fiber bragg grating for tunable dbr fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13, 3877–3882 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16, 10358–10363 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Kang, J. Walish, T. Gorishnyy, and E. Thomas, “Broad-wavelength-range chemically tunable block-copolymer photonic gels,” Nat. Mater. 6, 957–960 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Colodrero, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Langmuir 24, 4430–4434 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Calvo and H. Míguez, “Flexible, adhesive, and biocompatible Bragg mirrors based on polydimethylsiloxane infiltrated nanoparticle multilayers,” Chem. Mater. 22, 3909–3915 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Hotta, S. M. Clarke, and E. M. Terentjev, “Stress relaxation in transient networks of symmetric triblock styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer,” Macromolecules 35, 271–277 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, “Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly,” Appl. Optics 40, 1116–1125 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the madagascan sunset moth,” Opt. Express 15, 2691–2701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Kolle, B. Zheng, N. Gibbons, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Stretch-tuneable dielectric mirrors and optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18, 575–581 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Zhu, S. Cai, and Z. Suo, “Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 47, 3254–3262 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Calvo and H. Míguez, “Flexible, adhesive, and biocompatible Bragg mirrors based on polydimethylsiloxane infiltrated nanoparticle multilayers,” Chem. Mater. 22, 3909–3915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, S. Cai, and Z. Suo, “Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 47, 3254–3262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolle, B. Zheng, N. Gibbons, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Stretch-tuneable dielectric mirrors and optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18, 575–581 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

S. Colodrero, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Langmuir 24, 4430–4434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshioka and S. Kinoshita, “Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the madagascan sunset moth,” Opt. Express 15, 2691–2701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, J. Walish, T. Gorishnyy, and E. Thomas, “Broad-wavelength-range chemically tunable block-copolymer photonic gels,” Nat. Mater. 6, 957–960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Hotta, S. M. Clarke, and E. M. Terentjev, “Stress relaxation in transient networks of symmetric triblock styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer,” Macromolecules 35, 271–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, “Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly,” Appl. Optics 40, 1116–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Scherf, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalem, M.

S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ando, T.

T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J.

Anta, J. a.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baer, E.

Bartlett, P. N.

S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. Kolle, B. Zheng, N. Gibbons, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Stretch-tuneable dielectric mirrors and optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18, 575–581 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boschloo, G.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

J. Zhu, S. Cai, and Z. Suo, “Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 47, 3254–3262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M.

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvo, M. E.

M. E. Calvo and H. Míguez, “Flexible, adhesive, and biocompatible Bragg mirrors based on polydimethylsiloxane infiltrated nanoparticle multilayers,” Chem. Mater. 22, 3909–3915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P.

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chiou, S. W.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, S. M.

A. Hotta, S. M. Clarke, and E. M. Terentjev, “Stress relaxation in transient networks of symmetric triblock styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer,” Macromolecules 35, 271–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colodrero, S.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Langmuir 24, 4430–4434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coyle, S.

S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunha, P. M.

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Eder, D.

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fumin, H.

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbons, N.

Gorishnyy, T.

Y. Kang, J. Walish, T. Gorishnyy, and E. Thomas, “Broad-wavelength-range chemically tunable block-copolymer photonic gels,” Nat. Mater. 6, 957–960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guldin, S.

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagfeldt, A.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Häggman, L.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiltner, A.

Hotta, A.

A. Hotta, S. M. Clarke, and E. M. Terentjev, “Stress relaxation in transient networks of symmetric triblock styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer,” Macromolecules 35, 271–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. K.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, a.

T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, J. Walish, T. Gorishnyy, and E. Thomas, “Broad-wavelength-range chemically tunable block-copolymer photonic gels,” Nat. Mater. 6, 957–960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, T.

Kim, K.-H.

S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, S.

Kolle, M.

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolle, B. Zheng, N. Gibbons, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Stretch-tuneable dielectric mirrors and optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18, 575–581 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komikado, T.

T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langford, R.

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, C.

P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, “Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly,” Appl. Optics 40, 1116–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. P.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lott, J.

Lozano, G.

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahajan, S.

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, K.

T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Míguez, H.

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Calvo and H. Míguez, “Flexible, adhesive, and biocompatible Bragg mirrors based on polydimethylsiloxane infiltrated nanoparticle multilayers,” Chem. Mater. 22, 3909–3915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Langmuir 24, 4430–4434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihi, A.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mofrad, M. R. K.

S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Núñez, N.

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ocaña, M.

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Langmuir 24, 4430–4434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakash, G. V.

S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Ortiz, V.

S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, R.

P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, “Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly,” Appl. Optics 40, 1116–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Sobrado, O.

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, M. R. J.

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherf, U.

U. Scherf, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. H.

S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

Song, H.

Song, M. H.

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stefik, M.

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, U.

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolle, B. Zheng, N. Gibbons, J. J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Stretch-tuneable dielectric mirrors and optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18, 575–581 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suo, Z.

J. Zhu, S. Cai, and Z. Suo, “Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 47, 3254–3262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Terentjev, E. M.

A. Hotta, S. M. Clarke, and E. M. Terentjev, “Stress relaxation in transient networks of symmetric triblock styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer,” Macromolecules 35, 271–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E.

Y. Kang, J. Walish, T. Gorishnyy, and E. Thomas, “Broad-wavelength-range chemically tunable block-copolymer photonic gels,” Nat. Mater. 6, 957–960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, L.-W.

A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Umegaki, S.

T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, P.

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, “Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly,” Appl. Optics 40, 1116–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakely, G.

P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, “Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly,” Appl. Optics 40, 1116–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walish, J.

Y. Kang, J. Walish, T. Gorishnyy, and E. Thomas, “Broad-wavelength-range chemically tunable block-copolymer photonic gels,” Nat. Mater. 6, 957–960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-H.

A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weder, C.

Wenger, B.

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, U.

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16, 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

Xu, X.

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.-H.

S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, S.

Zheng, B.

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. Cai, and Z. Suo, “Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 47, 3254–3262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G. J.

A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Guldin, M. Kolle, M. Stefik, R. Langford, D. Eder, U. Wiesner, and U. Steiner, “Tunable mesoporous bragg reflectors based on block-copolymer self-assembly,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3664–3668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Míguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Optics (1)

P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, “Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly,” Appl. Optics 40, 1116–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, and L.-W. Tu, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Coyle, G. V. Prakash, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalem, and P. N. Bartlett, “Spherical micromirrors from templated self-assembly: Polarization rotation on the micron scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 767–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. E. Calvo and H. Míguez, “Flexible, adhesive, and biocompatible Bragg mirrors based on polydimethylsiloxane infiltrated nanoparticle multilayers,” Chem. Mater. 22, 3909–3915 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

U. Scherf, “Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Su, P. Chang, Y. Wu, K. Huang, and T. Chen, “Chirped GaAs-AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors for high brightness yellow-green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 182–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Solids Struct. (1)

J. Zhu, S. Cai, and Z. Suo, “Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 47, 3254–3262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. H. Song, B. Wenger, and R. H. Friend, “Tuning the wavelength of lasing emission in organic semiconducting laser by the orientation of liquid crystalline conjugated polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. S (1)

S.-H. Yoon, V. Reyes-Ortiz, K.-H. Kim, Y. H. Seo, and M. R. K. Mofrad, “Analysis of circular PDMS microballoons with ultralarge deflection for MEMS design,” J. Microelectromech. S 19, 854–864 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, J. a. Anta, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Experimental demonstration of the mechanism of light harvesting enhancement in photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 1150–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

S. Colodrero, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Langmuir 24, 4430–4434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromolecules (1)

A. Hotta, S. M. Clarke, and E. M. Terentjev, “Stress relaxation in transient networks of symmetric triblock styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer,” Macromolecules 35, 271–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

O. Sánchez-Sobrado, M. Calvo, N. Núñez, M. Ocaña, G. Lozano, and H. Míguez, “Environmentally responsive nanoparticle-based luminescent optical resonators,” Nanoscale 2, 936–941 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Y. Kang, J. Walish, T. Gorishnyy, and E. Thomas, “Broad-wavelength-range chemically tunable block-copolymer photonic gels,” Nat. Mater. 6, 957–960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

M. Kolle, P. M. Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, H. Fumin, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. Baumberg, and U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Komikado, a. Inoue, K. Masuda, T. Ando, and S. Umegaki, “Multi-layered mirrors fabricated by spin-coating organic polymers,” Thin Solid Films 515, 3887–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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