Abstract

A system of two probes is designed for terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy of sub-wavelength size objects. A twin-needle probe confines broadband THz pulses spatially by means of surface plasmon waves to a sub-wavelength spot smaller than 10 microns. The confined pulses are detected within the near-field zone of the twin-needle probe by a sub-wavelength aperture probe. The system allows THz spectroscopy to be applied to single micrometer-size objects in the 1-2.5THz region.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  26. O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579–1581 (2002).
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2011 (6)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueckstein and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging of terahertz surface plasmon waves excited on a gold surface by a focused beam,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3212–3217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Astley, B. McCracken, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Analysis of rectangular resonant cavities in terahertz parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1452–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rusina, M. Durach, K. A. Nelson, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoconcentration of terahertz radiation in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18576–18589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Frequency-dependent characterization of THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on single-wires,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10815–10822 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423(6941), 734–738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579–1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Astley, V.

Balu, R.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, B.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. B.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carnahan, M. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423(6941), 734–738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casanova, F.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423(6941), 734–738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuvilin, A.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, P. D.

Dienst, A.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Durach, M.

Fausti, D.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Graham, C.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gregurick, S. K.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Grober, R. D.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hägele, D.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423(6941), 734–738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harel, R.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heilweil, E. J.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M. C.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hueso, L. E.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ikari, T.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.

T. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423(6941), 734–738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koo, S. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korter, T. M.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lee, M.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lövenich, R.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423(6941), 734–738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mark, P. R.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mbonye, M.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCracken, B.

Mendis, R.

Minamide, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueckstein and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging of terahertz surface plasmon waves excited on a gold surface by a focused beam,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3212–3217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579–1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Mueckstein, R.

R. Mueckstein and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging of terahertz surface plasmon waves excited on a gold surface by a focused beam,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3212–3217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

Nelson, K. A.

Ohashi, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. R.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, N. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579–1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken and N. C. van der Valk, “Spot-size reduction in terahertz apertureless near-field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2306–2308 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prober, D. E.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pyon, S.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rusina, A.

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schoelkopf, R. J.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, J. A.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shikata, J.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

Suwal, O. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, H.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, T.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, M.

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N. C.

Wächter, M.

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, K. W.

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579–1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wynn, J. D.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.-F.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, H.

Zhang, J.

T. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, T. Tan, P. R. Mark, B. Bowden, and J. A. Harrington, “Waveguide mode imaging and dispersion analysis with terahertz near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579–1581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heilweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1-3), 65–70 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves (1)

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, J. A. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-González, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, D. Hägele, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas,” Nature 423(6941), 734–738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Twin-needle probe system for THz spectroscopy. (a) Schematic diagram of the probe positioned above the aperture of the integrated near-field probe. The THz pulse is incident from above (indicated by red arrows). Inset: cross section of the system showing the needle tips, the aperture in the gold screen and the photoconductive antenna. (b) Optical image of the twin-needle probe. (c) Electric field distribution of the incident THz pulse (left) and the field distribution near the twin-needle probe (right). (d) Space-time maps of the incident THz pulse (left) and the pulse focused by the twin-needle probe (right). To show the field enhancement both space-time maps are normalized to the maximal amplitude for the twin-needle probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Confinement of the THz wave by the twin-needle probe. (a) High-resolution 100x100μm map of the electric field confined by the needles. (b) Linear scans of E2 along the x- and y-direction passing through the focus. (c) z-dependence of the time-integrated intensity of the confined THz field. Inset: waveform of the confined THz pulse. (d) Electric field distributions in the same area as in (a) at a larger distance z0 + Δz from the needle tips.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral response of the twin-needle probe. (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. THz pulses are generated in a ZnTe crystal, focused by a system consisting of a Si lens (L), two parabolic mirrors (P1, P4) and two flat mirrors (M2, M3) in the region of the needle probe (NP), and detected by the sub-wavelength aperture probe (AP). (b) Spectral response of the twin-needle probe (red squares and dotted line) and transmission spectrum of the sub-wavelength aperture (blue line). (c) Waveform and spectrum (inset) of the detected THz pulse.

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