Abstract

A biologically inspired compound-eye structure, which composes of ~5,867 honeycomb-patterned microlenses, was fabricated on a hemispherical shell. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, which involves a femtosecond laser-enhanced wet etching and casting process followed by a thermomechanical process to convert the film into a hemispherical surface. By optimizing the parameters of thermomechanical process to form the curvilinear surface, the experimental result shows that the microlenses are omnidirectionally aligned on the dome with lens diameters of ~85 µm and the angle between two lens of ~2°, and the individual microlenses have rudimentary focusing and imaging properties. The artificial compound-eye structure fabricated by this method has great potential applications in scale-invariant processing, robot vision, and fast motion detection.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3(4), 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Radtke, J. Duparré, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser lithographic fabrication and characterization of a spherical artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3067–3077 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Artificial neural superposition eye,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11922–11933 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1(1), R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Straw, E. J. Warrant, and D. C. O’Carroll, “A “bright zone” in male hoverfly (Eristalis tenax) eyes and associated faster motion detection and increased contrast sensitivity,” J. Exp. Biol. 209(21), 4339–4354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

D. G. Stavenga, “Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. II. Dependence on facet lens F-number and rhabdomere type in Drosophila,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 189(3), 189–202 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and it’s application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3(4), 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

H. B. Barlow, “The size of ommatidia in apposition eyes,” J. Exp. Biol. 29, 667–674 (1952).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “The size of ommatidia in apposition eyes,” J. Exp. Biol. 29, 667–674 (1952).

Bian, H.

Bräuer, A.

Brückner, A.

Chen, F.

Dannberg, P.

Duparré, J.

Duparré, J. W.

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1(1), R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisner, M.

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, S.

Gao, X. F.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, B.

B. Greiner, W. A. Ribi, and E. J. Warrant, “Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis,” Cell Tissue Res. 316(3), 377–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamanaka, K.

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and it’s application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3(4), 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

He, S. P.

Hou, C.

Hou, X.

Ichioka, Y.

Ishida, K.

Jeong, K. H.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Artificial ommatidia by self-aligned microlenses and waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 5–7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Artificial ommatidia by self-aligned microlenses and waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 5–7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, Y.

Kondou, N.

Koshi, H.

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and it’s application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3(4), 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, T.

Lee, L. P.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Artificial ommatidia by self-aligned microlenses and waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 5–7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Lee and R. Szema, “Inspirations from biological optics for advanced photonic systems,” Science 310(5751), 1148–1150 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, W. W.

Liu, H. W.

Lu, Z. W.

Miyatake, S.

Miyazaki, D.

Morimoto, T.

O’Carroll, D. C.

A. D. Straw, E. J. Warrant, and D. C. O’Carroll, “A “bright zone” in male hoverfly (Eristalis tenax) eyes and associated faster motion detection and increased contrast sensitivity,” J. Exp. Biol. 209(21), 4339–4354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radtke, D.

Ribi, W. A.

B. Greiner, W. A. Ribi, and E. J. Warrant, “Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis,” Cell Tissue Res. 316(3), 377–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, P.

Shogenji, R.

Si, J. H.

Stavenga, D. G.

D. G. Stavenga, “Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. II. Dependence on facet lens F-number and rhabdomere type in Drosophila,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 189(3), 189–202 (2003).
[PubMed]

Straw, A. D.

A. D. Straw, E. J. Warrant, and D. C. O’Carroll, “A “bright zone” in male hoverfly (Eristalis tenax) eyes and associated faster motion detection and increased contrast sensitivity,” J. Exp. Biol. 209(21), 4339–4354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szema, R.

L. P. Lee and R. Szema, “Inspirations from biological optics for advanced photonic systems,” Science 310(5751), 1148–1150 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanida, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Völkel, R.

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

Warrant, E. J.

A. D. Straw, E. J. Warrant, and D. C. O’Carroll, “A “bright zone” in male hoverfly (Eristalis tenax) eyes and associated faster motion detection and increased contrast sensitivity,” J. Exp. Biol. 209(21), 4339–4354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Greiner, W. A. Ribi, and E. J. Warrant, “Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis,” Cell Tissue Res. 316(3), 377–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weible, K. J.

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wippermann, F.

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3(4), 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wippermann, F. C.

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1(1), R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Y. J.

Xu, L.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yan, X.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Yao, X.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeitner, U. D.

Zhang, J. H.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. H.

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(17), 2213–2217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bioinspir. Biomim. (2)

J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 3(4), 046008 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1(1), R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Tissue Res. (1)

B. Greiner, W. A. Ribi, and E. J. Warrant, “Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis,” Cell Tissue Res. 316(3), 377–390 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. (1)

D. G. Stavenga, “Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. II. Dependence on facet lens F-number and rhabdomere type in Drosophila,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 189(3), 189–202 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Exp. Biol. (2)

H. B. Barlow, “The size of ommatidia in apposition eyes,” J. Exp. Biol. 29, 667–674 (1952).

A. D. Straw, E. J. Warrant, and D. C. O’Carroll, “A “bright zone” in male hoverfly (Eristalis tenax) eyes and associated faster motion detection and increased contrast sensitivity,” J. Exp. Biol. 209(21), 4339–4354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 461–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and it’s application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3(4), 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Lee and R. Szema, “Inspirations from biological optics for advanced photonic systems,” Science 310(5751), 1148–1150 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

http://www.lzschool.com/show.aspx?id=12135&cid=71&page=13 .

J. W. Kimball, “The compound eye,” Kimball’s Biology Pages, http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CompoundEye.html .

G. L. Lin and C. C. Cheng, “An artificial compound eye tracking pan-tilt motion,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 35, 242–248 (2008).

L. Lichtensteiger and P. Eggenberger, “Evolving the morphology of a compound eye on a robot,” 1999 Third European Workshop on Advanced Mobile Robots (Eurobot’ 99). Proceedings (Cat. No.99EX355) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Zurich, Switzerland, 1999), 127–134.

R. S. Stein and J. Powers, Topics in Polymer Physics (Imperial College Press, 2006), Chap. 1.

D. Bower, An Introduction to Polymer Physics (Cambridge University Press, 2002), Chap. 6.

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