Abstract

The laser-induced periodic surface structure technique was used to form simultaneously dual-scale rough structures (DSRS) with spiral-shaped nanoscale structure inside semi-spherical microscale holes on p-GaN surface to improve the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The light output power of DSRS-LEDs was 30% higher than that of conventional LEDs at an injection current of 20 mA. The enhancement in the light output power could be attributed to the increase in the probability of photons to escape from the increased surface area of textured p-GaN surface.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. D. C. Dai, S. J. Xu, S. L. Shi, M. H. Xie, and C. M. Che, “Efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence in single-crystalline ZnO at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3377–3379 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, and X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(9), 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, Z. Z. Xu, and H. Kuroda, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9235–9247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Dai, S. J. Xu, S. L. Shi, M. H. Xie, and C. M. Che, “Efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence in single-crystalline ZnO at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3377–3379 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, “Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3087–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Pa?ebutas, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Photoconductive Z-scan measurement of multiphoton absorption in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6930–6932 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. S. Tinten and D. V. D. Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), 2643–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Che, C. M.

Chen, C. P.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. H.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, Z. Z. Xu, and H. Kuroda, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. F.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. G.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. W.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. W.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, “Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3087–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, H. L.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, R. W.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Costache, F.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D. C.

Dai, J. J.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, “Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3087–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Englezis, A.

Fang, R.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X. D.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Y.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, and X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(9), 2226–2230 (2011).
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J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9235–9247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C. S.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hseuh, T. H.

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. K.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. Y.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. P.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. C.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, Z. Z. Xu, and H. Kuroda, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, “Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3087–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

Ji, W.

Jia, T.

T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, Z. Z. Xu, and H. Kuroda, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanaev, A. V.

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. J.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kao, F. J.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, J. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, “Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3087–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Krotkus, A.

V. Pa?ebutas, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Photoconductive Z-scan measurement of multiphoton absorption in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6930–6932 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, Z. Z. Xu, and H. Kuroda, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. F.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Z. X.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. Y.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, M.

V. Pa?ebutas, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Photoconductive Z-scan measurement of multiphoton absorption in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6930–6932 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. K.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, R.

T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J. C.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Y.

C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. H.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, “Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3087–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linde, D. V. D.

K. S. Tinten and D. V. D. Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), 2643–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, and X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(9), 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, and X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(9), 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. M.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. L.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mack, M. P.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mi, J.

Michel, J. P.

Mishra, U.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Molian, P.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Museur, L.

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pacebutas, V.

V. Pa?ebutas, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Photoconductive Z-scan measurement of multiphoton absorption in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6930–6932 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pandelov, S.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

V. Pa?ebutas, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Photoconductive Z-scan measurement of multiphoton absorption in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6930–6932 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pong, B. J.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Portes, P.

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qu, Y.

Reif, J.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S. L.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuai, B.

T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stassinopoulos, A.

Su, Y. K.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-Based LEDs With an SPS Tunneling Contact Layer and an ITO Transparent Contact,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1002–1004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 868–870 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, “Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3087–3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. H.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

V. Pa?ebutas, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Photoconductive Z-scan measurement of multiphoton absorption in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6930–6932 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

Tinten, K. S.

K. S. Tinten and D. V. D. Linde, “Generation of dense electron-hole plasmas in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), 2643–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Tsai, C. M.

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. J.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. C.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hseuh, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light output of an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1844–1848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
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Xu, S. J.

Xu, X.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, and X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(9), 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
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X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, Z. Z. Xu, and H. Kuroda, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111117 (2006).
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T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
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X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
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H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, J. T. Chu, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, R. J. Tsai, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Nitride-based LEDs with nano-scale textured sidewalls using natural lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(12), 2998–3001 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, Z. Z. Xu, and H. Kuroda, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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C. F. Lin, J. H. Zheng, Z. J. Yang, J. J. Dai, D. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Lai, and C. S. Hong, “High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, Z.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, and X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(9), 2226–2230 (2011).
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M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, G. C. Chi, and J. M. Tsai, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
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Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Jia, Z. Xu, X. Li, R. Li, B. Shuai, and F. Zhao, “Microscopic mechanisms of ablation and micromachining of dielectrics by using femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4382–4384 (2003).
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Appl. Surf. Sci.

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IEEE Electron Device Lett.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagrams of DSRS-LED (b) Top-view FE-SEM images of p-GaN surface with DSRS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measurement current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of conventional LED and DSRS-LED, respectively. The inset is the reverse I-V characteristics of both LED samples. (b) I –V characteristics of the DSRS and conventional p-GaN/ITO measured by the transmission line method (TLM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity–current (L–I) characteristics of DSRS-LED and conventional LED, respectively. The inset shows the EL spectra of both LED samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional ray-tracing images of (a) conventional LED, (b) DSRS-LED.

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