Abstract

We report on the room temperature polariton lasing and photon lasing in a ZnO-based hybrid microcavity under optical pumping. A series of experimental studies of the polariton lasing (exciton-photon detunings of δ = −119meV) in the strong-coupling regime are discussed and compared to a photon lasing (δ = −45meV) in the weak-coupling regime obtained in the same structure. The measured threshold power density (31.8kW/cm2) of polariton lasing is one order of magnitude lower than that of the photon lasing (318.2kW/cm2). In addition, the comparison between polariton lasing and photon lasing is done in terms of the linewidth broadening, blue-shift of the emission peak, and polarization.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Den, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1489–1537 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, S. Halm, and F. Henneberger, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, and G. Malpuech, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 195(3), 563–567 (2003) (a).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. M. Whittaker and P. R. Eastham, “Coherence properties of the microcavity polariton condensate,” Europhys. Lett. 87(2), 27002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Haug and S. Koch, “On the Theory of Laser Action in Dense Exciton System,” Phys. Status Solidi 82(2), 531–543 (1977) (b).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, S. Halm, and F. Henneberger, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Den, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1489–1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and P. R. Eastham, “Coherence properties of the microcavity polariton condensate,” Europhys. Lett. 87(2), 27002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, and G. Malpuech, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 195(3), 563–567 (2003) (a).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. Haug and S. Koch, “On the Theory of Laser Action in Dense Exciton System,” Phys. Status Solidi 82(2), 531–543 (1977) (b).
[CrossRef]

André, R.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M.

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astratov, V. N.

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baas, A.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balili, R.

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamba, M.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, J.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchekioua, R.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, R.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bretagnon, T.

S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, C. M.

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Butté, R.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrnes, T.

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlin, J.-F.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-R.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christian, T.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christmann, G.

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christopoulos, S.

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciuti, C.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colocci, M.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. P.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dang, S.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasbach, G.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K.

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delalande, C.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den, H.

H. Den, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1489–1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deveaud, B.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diederichs, C.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, D.

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastham, P. R.

D. M. Whittaker and P. R. Eastham, “Coherence properties of the microcavity polariton condensate,” Europhys. Lett. 87(2), 27002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emam-Ismail, M.

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fallert, J.

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faure, S.

S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feltin, E.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrier, L.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M. D.

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujisawa, T.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil, B.

S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, and G. Malpuech, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 195(3), 563–567 (2003) (a).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glauser, M.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grandjean, N.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundy, A. J. D.

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillet, T.

S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gurioli, M.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halm, S.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, S. Halm, and F. Henneberger, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hartwell, V.

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, H.

H. Den, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1489–1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug and S. Koch, “On the Theory of Laser Action in Dense Exciton System,” Phys. Status Solidi 82(2), 531–543 (1977) (b).
[CrossRef]

Hauschild, R.

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, F.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, S. Halm, and F. Henneberger, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höfling, S.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-F.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, A.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeambrun, P.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaliteevski, M.

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalusniak, S.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, S. Halm, and F. Henneberger, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kasprzak, J.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavokin, A.

P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, and G. Malpuech, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 195(3), 563–567 (2003) (a).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kavokin, A. V.

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keeling, J. M. J.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalifa, A. A.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. Y.

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingshirn, C.

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.

H. Haug and S. Koch, “On the Theory of Laser Action in Dense Exciton System,” Phys. Status Solidi 82(2), 531–543 (1977) (b).
[CrossRef]

Krizhanovskii, D. N.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumada, N.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kundermann, S.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-C.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurn, D.

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lagoudakis, P. G.

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. W.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-C.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, P.

S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lemaître, A.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leroux, M.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levrat, J.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-C.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Littlewood, P. B.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.-R.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, A.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Love, A. P. D.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T.-C.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lv, C. G.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malpuech, G.

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, and G. Malpuech, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 195(3), 563–567 (2003) (a).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchetti, F. M.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markushev, V. M.

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. D.

P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M.

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, M.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, L.

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piermarocchi, C.

F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, S.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quattropani, A.

F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Recher, P.

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, M.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizeiqi, S. A.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. S.

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roumpos, G.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roussignol, Ph.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubo, Y. G.

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusu, E. V.

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhkov, M. V.

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sadofev, S.

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, S. Halm, and F. Henneberger, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santori, C.

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanvitto, D.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savona, V.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savvidis, P. G.

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwendimann, P.

F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, I. R.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semond, F.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Senellart, P.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Snoke, D.

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solnyshkov, D. D.

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, G. S.

H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staehli, J. L.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, R. M.

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stokker-Cheregi, F.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szymanska, M. H.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tahraoui, A.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tartakovskii, A. I.

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tassone, F.

F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tian, L.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tiginyanu, I. M.

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tignon, J.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ursaki, V. V.

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Utsunomiya, S.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Druten, N.

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinattieri, A.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Högersthal, G. B.

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-C.

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wertz, E.

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

West, K.

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and P. R. Eastham, “Coherence properties of the microcavity polariton condensate,” Europhys. Lett. 87(2), 27002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.-C.

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Wang, and H. Deng, “Characteristics of exciton-polaritons in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4101–4112 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. X.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Den, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1489–1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakhidov, A. A.

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zamfirescu, M.

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, and G. Malpuech, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 195(3), 563–567 (2003) (a).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, K.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

V. M. Markushev, V. V. Ursaki, M. V. Ryzhkov, C. M. Briskina, I. M. Tiginyanu, E. V. Rusu, and A. A. Zakhidov, “ZnO lasing in complex systems with tetrapods,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 231–238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, S. Halm, and F. Henneberger, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Ferrier, S. Pigeon, E. Wertz, M. Bamba, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, C. Ciuti, and J. Bloch, “Polariton parametric oscillation in a single micropillar cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-R. Chen, T.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Lin, W.-R. Liu, W.-F. Hsieh, C.-C. Kuo, and C.-C. Lee, “Large vacuum Rabi splitting in ZnO-based hybrid microcavities observed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

D. M. Whittaker and P. R. Eastham, “Coherence properties of the microcavity polariton condensate,” Europhys. Lett. 87(2), 27002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. G. Lagoudakis, M. D. Martin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and A. Kavokin, “Coexistence of low threshold lasing and strong coupling in microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szyma?ska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and ?-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450(7169), 529–532 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

I. R. Sellers, F. Semond, M. Leroux, J. Massies, M. Zamfirescu, F. Stokker-Cheregi, M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, A. Tahraoui, and A. A. Khalifa, “Polariton emission and re?ectivity in GaN microcavities as a function of angle and temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74(19), 193308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, and M. Kaliteevski, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for the realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 161205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, P. G. Savvidis, R. M. Stevenson, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. S. Skolnick, D. M. Whittaker, and J. S. Roberts, “Parametric oscillation in a vertical microcavity: A polariton condensate or micro-optical parametric oscillation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16247–R16250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Faure, T. Guillet, P. Lefebvre, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Comparison of strong coupling regimes in bulk GaAs, GaN, and ZnO semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, and P. Schwendimann, “Bottleneck effects in the relaxation and photoluminescence of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 56(12), 7554–7563 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R. M. Stevenson, M. S. Skolnick, V. N. Astratov, D. M. Whittaker, J. J. Baumberg, and J. S. Roberts, “Relaxation bottleneck and its suppression in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283–R2286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Butté, J. Levrat, G. Christmann, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Phase diagram of a polariton laser from cryogenic to room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 80(23), 233301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. P. D. Love, D. N. Krizhanovskii, D. M. Whittaker, R. Bouchekioua, D. Sanvitto, S. A. Rizeiqi, R. Bradley, M. S. Skolnick, P. R. Eastham, R. André, and S. Dang, “Intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in the microcavity polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(6), 067404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. B. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-temperature polariton lasing in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Davis, M. Mewes, M. Andrews, N. van Druten, D. Durfee, D. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Baumberg, A. V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A. J. D. Grundy, R. Butté, G. Christmann, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G. B. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Spontaneous polarization buildup in a room-temperature polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Levrat, R. Butté, T. Christian, M. Glauser, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and Y. G. Rubo, “Pinning and depinning of the polarization of exciton-polariton condensates at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(16), 166402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Deng, G. S. Solomon, R. Hey, K. H. Ploog, and Y. Yamamoto, “Spatial coherence of a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 126403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi

H. Haug and S. Koch, “On the Theory of Laser Action in Dense Exciton System,” Phys. Status Solidi 82(2), 531–543 (1977) (b).
[CrossRef]

M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, and G. Malpuech, “ZnO as a material mostly adapted for realization of room-temperature polariton lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 195(3), 563–567 (2003) (a).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

H. Deng, G. Weihs, D. Snoke, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Polariton lasing vs. photon lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15318–15323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

H. Den, H. Haug, and Y. Yamamoto, “Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1489–1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The color maps of the angular dispersions of measured PL spectra at (a) 0.33Pth,L, (b) 0.78Pth,L and (c) 1.1Pth,L for the case of δ = −119 meV (exciton fraction = 11.4%) and (d) 0.11Pth,S, (e) 0.83Pth,S, and (f) Pth,S for the case of δ = −45 meV (exciton fraction = 25%) at RT. Uncoupled photon mode(C), exciton mode(X) (white dot lines), and LPB (white dash line) are plotted for reference. (g) Integrated intensity of LPB vs energy relative to E(k// = 0) for the case of large detuning. (h) Integrated intensity of LPB (blue spot) and cavity photon mode (red spot and black spot, C) vs energy relative to E(k// = 0) for the case of small detuning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Integrated emission intensity, (b) emission linewidth and (c) emission energy of polariton versus pump power for the case of large detuning (δ = −119 meV) at RT. (d) Integrated emission intensity, (e) emission linewidth and (f) emission energy of polariton (blue sphere) and photon mode (red sphere) versus pump power for the case of small detuning (δ = −45 meV) at RT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polar plots of linear polarization for (a) polariton lasing and (b) photon lasing at above (red sphere) and below (black sphere) threshold condition. The degree of linear polarization up to 92% is obtained in the photon lasing case

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) Spatial distribution of LP at 0.9Pth,L and 1.1Pth,L. (c) Interference pattern of polariton lasing emission passing through a double-slit at 1.4Pth,L.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Oscillator strength values in Fig. 1

Metrics