Abstract

Optical and electrical investigations of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) with a monolithically integrated electro-optical modulator (EOM) allow for a detailed physical understanding of this complex compound cavity laser system. The EOM VCSEL light output is investigated to identify optimal working points. An electro-optic resonance feature triggered by the quantum confined Stark effect is used to modulate individual VCSEL modes by more than 20 dB with an extremely small EOM voltage change of less than 100 mV. Spectral mode analysis reveals modulation of higher order modes and very low wavelength chirp of < 0.5 nm. Dynamic experiments and simulation predict an intrinsic bandwidth of the EOM VCSEL exceeding 50 GHz.

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2011 (1)

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrutin, E. A.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blokhin, S.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blokhin, S. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bornholdt, C.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dähne, M.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisele, H.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Esser, N.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fiol, G.

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, K.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Germann, T.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Germann, T. D.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorfinkel, V. B.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grote, N.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, J.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, A.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haisler, V.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, W.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hopfer, F.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Joel, A.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalosha, V.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karachinsky, L.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karachinsky, L. Y.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kropp, J. R.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, M.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larisch, G.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N. N.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, A.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lochmann, A.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lott, J.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lott, J. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luryi, S.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maximov, M.

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mikhrin, S.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohammed, E. M.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Möller, C.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moser, P.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mutig, A.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nadtochiy, A.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nadtochiy, A. M.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oktyabrsky, S. R.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payusov, A.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, U.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quast, H.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, W.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, O.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sellin, R.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shchukin, V.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shchukin, V. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sköld, M.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stock, E.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strittmatter, A.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokranov, V.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van Eisden, J.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, M.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Warming, T.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Westbergh, P.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakimov, M.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, I. A.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

(invited) Proc. SPIE (1)

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

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[CrossRef]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
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E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
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Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. Huff, “State of the short – reach optics market,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMV5.

W. Hofmann, P. Moser, P. Wolf, A. Mutig, M. Kroh, and D. Bimberg, “44 Gb/s VCSEL for optical interconnects,” post-deadline paper at OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, CA, USA, PDPC5, (2011).

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (>35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP22.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the device show the VCSEL section with an integrated Al-oxide aperture layer operated continuously and the smaller EOM section modulating the light output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solid lines: Optical output power characteristics of the EOM VCSEL are shown for different voltages applied to the EOM section. Dashed lines: Corresponding photocurrent due to absorption within the EOM section. Dotted lines: Guides to the eye to identify the position of data in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top: Directly measured EOM photocurrent Center: Integral optical output power. Bottom: Total VCSEL section output (EOM absorbed power + optical output power) - Data for three different currents of the VCSEL section are plotted. 5.0 mA shows a flat Ptot behavior while 6.0 mA and 6.2 mA drive currents show distinct resonance behaviors upon EOM voltage change doubling the total VCSEL output Ptot. This simultaneous increase of optical output power and EOM photocurrent is attributed to the resonance of both cavities due to EO-effect induced changes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modes of the EOM VCSEL at RT. Drive current of the VCSEL section is kept constant for all curves at 6.2 mA while the EOM voltage is varied from 2.6 V to 3.2 V. Significant changes due to the onset of the compound cavity resonance are found upon a change of only 100 mV from 2.9 to 3.0 V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Smith Chart of electrical impedance (S11) of EOM-section between 0…40 GHz and equivalent circuit of parasitic network. The intrinsic (ideal) EOM-section is represented as a two pole square being connected to a parasitic network. Drive current of the VCSEL section is 6.2 mA, EOM voltage is 2.8 V.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intrinsic bandwidth of the EOM VCSEL at RT. Electrical parasitics are deconvoluted from the measured data yielding an intrinsic bandwidth of 56 ± 5 GHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting values of the equivalent circuit of the parasitic network (as shown in Fig. 5).a

Equations (1)

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S 21 ( ω ) 1 τ p ω 0 2 τ p + ω 0 2 ω 2 +jωγ

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