Abstract

Optical and electrical investigations of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) with a monolithically integrated electro-optical modulator (EOM) allow for a detailed physical understanding of this complex compound cavity laser system. The EOM VCSEL light output is investigated to identify optimal working points. An electro-optic resonance feature triggered by the quantum confined Stark effect is used to modulate individual VCSEL modes by more than 20 dB with an extremely small EOM voltage change of less than 100 mV. Spectral mode analysis reveals modulation of higher order modes and very low wavelength chirp of < 0.5 nm. Dynamic experiments and simulation predict an intrinsic bandwidth of the EOM VCSEL exceeding 50 GHz.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2011 (1)

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avrutin, E. A.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blokhin, S.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blokhin, S. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bornholdt, C.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dähne, M.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisele, H.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Esser, N.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fiol, G.

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, K.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Florez, L.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[Crossref]

Germann, T.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

Germann, T. D.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gorfinkel, V. B.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grote, N.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gustavsson, J.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haglund, A.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haisler, V.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harbison, J.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, W.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hopfer, F.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jewell, J.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[Crossref]

Joel, A.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kalosha, V.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Karachinsky, L.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Karachinsky, L. Y.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kovsh, A.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krestnikov, I.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kropp, J. R.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuntz, M.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Larisch, G.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Larsson, A.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ledentsov, N.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ledentsov, N. N.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lenz, A.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Livshits, D.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lochmann, A.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lott, J.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lott, J. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luryi, S.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[Crossref]

Maximov, M.

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mikhrin, S.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammed, E. M.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Möller, C.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moser, P.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mutig, A.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nadtochiy, A.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nadtochiy, A. M.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oktyabrsky, S. R.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Payusov, A.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pohl, U.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quast, H.

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Richter, W.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rumyantsev, O.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sellin, R.

V. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2544 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shchukin, V.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Blokhin, J. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. Ledentsov, M. Maximov, A. Nadtochiy, V. Shchukin, and D. Bimberg, “Oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 45(10), 501 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shchukin, V. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, A. Mutig, T. D. Germann, J. R. Kropp, L. Y. Karachinsky, S. A. Blokhin, and A. M. Nadtochiy, “Optical components for very short reach applications at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” (invited) Proc. SPIE 7597, 75971F, 75971F–10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shore, K. A.

E. A. Avrutin, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(18), 2460 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sköld, M.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stock, E.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strittmatter, A.

T. Germann, A. Strittmatter, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, J. Lott, S. Blokhin, L. Karachinsky, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, U. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Monolithic electro-optically modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 10 Gb/s open-eye operation,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(10), 2552–2554 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultra high-speed electro-optically modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6889, 68890H, 68890H–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tokranov, V.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tu, C.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[Crossref]

van Eisden, J.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Varanasi, M.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walker, S.

Y. Lee, J. Jewell, S. Walker, C. Tu, J. Harbison, and L. Florez, “Electrodispersive multiple quantum well modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(18), 1684 (1988).
[Crossref]

Warming, T.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. Shchukin, V. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “20 Gb/s 85°C error-free operation of VCSELs based on submonolayer deposition of quantum dots,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1302–1308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Westbergh, P.

P. Westbergh, J. Gustavsson, A. Haglund, M. Sköld, A. Joel, and A. Larsson, “High-speed, low-current-density 850 nm VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 694–703 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, P.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wood, T. H.

D. A. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakimov, M.

J. van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, O. Rumyantsev, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. R. Oktyabrsky, “High frequency resonance-free loss modulation in a duo-cavity VCSEL,” Proc. SPIE 6908, 69080M, 69080M–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Young, I. A.

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W. Hofmann, P. Moser, P. Wolf, A. Mutig, M. Kroh, and D. Bimberg, “44 Gb/s VCSEL for optical interconnects,” post-deadline paper at OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, CA, USA, PDPC5, (2011).

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (>35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP22.

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