Abstract

We present a novel method of calibration of crosstalk probability for multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs) based on the measurement of the normalized second-order intensity correlation function of coherent light. The method was tested for several MPPCs, and was shown to be advantageous over the traditional calibration method based on the measurements of the dark noise statistics. The method can be applied without the need of modification for different kinds of spatially resolved single photon detectors.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

2010

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, K. Tsujino, K. Sato, and M. Sasaki, “Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiode with ultralow dark count rate at liquid nitrogen temperature,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16885–16897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with coherent and squeezed-vacuum light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mi?uda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14539–14549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber assisted detection with photon-number resolution,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon detector,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

1997

A. Spinelli and A. L. Lacaita, “Physics and numerical simulation of single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(11), 1931–1943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. ?ukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Achilles, D.

Afek, I.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agliati, A.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Allevi, A.

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ambar, O.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, A.

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aurite, S.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avenhaus, M.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakstein, M.

Banaszek, K.

Bigliardi, S.

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bondani, M.

M. Ramilli, A. Allevi, V. Chmill, M. Bondani, M. Caccia, and A. Andreoni, “Photon-number statistics with silicon photomultipliers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 852–862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, B.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

Caccia, M.

Chekhova, M. V.

D. A. Kalashnikov, S.-H. Tan, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Krivitsky, “Accessing photon bunching with a photon number resolving multi-pixel detector,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9352–9363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chludzinski, J. W.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chmill, V.

Clarke, R. M.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

Colling, P.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

Condorelli, G.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dovrat, L.

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H. S.

Ekert, A. K.

M. ?ukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eraerds, P.

Fallica, G.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon detector,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon detector,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Funk, J. E.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

Haderka, O.

M. Mi?uda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hogue, H. H.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horne, M. A.

M. ?ukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingargiola, A.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Istrati, D.

Jacobs, B. C.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon detector,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ježek, M.

M. Mi?uda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, D. A.

Kim, J.

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, P.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krivitsky, L. A.

Labanca, I.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A. L.

A. Spinelli and A. L. Lacaita, “Physics and numerical simulation of single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(11), 1931–1943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laiho, K.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legré, M.

Lita, A. E.

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lombardo, S.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, L. J.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manfredi, M.

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, S.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazzillo, M.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Micuda, M.

M. Mi?uda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milburn, G. J.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A. J.

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

Nam, S.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

Nam, S. W.

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Natan, A.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oakley, D. C.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, W. D.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pezzé, L.

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with coherent and squeezed-vacuum light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, T. B.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon detector,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramilli, M.

Rech, I.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rimini, E.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

Romani, R. W.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

Rosenberg, D.

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanfilippo, D.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Sato, K.

Sciacca, E.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaham, A.

Silberberg, Y.

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, C.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber assisted detection with photon-number resolution,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2387–2389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliwa, C.

Smerzi, A.

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with coherent and squeezed-vacuum light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, A.

A. Spinelli and A. L. Lacaita, “Physics and numerical simulation of single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(11), 1931–1943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, R.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S.-H.

Tsujino, K.

Verghese, S.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Younger, R. D.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

Zeilinger, A.

M. ?ukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zukowski, M.

M. ?ukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Multiphoton detection using visible light photon counter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 902–904 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, “Development of a high quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Rev.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, “Detection of single infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photons using superconducting transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 73, 735–737 (1998).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

E. Sciacca, G. Condorelli, S. Aurite, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and E. Rimini, “Crosstalk characterization in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(3), 218–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, “High-efficiency photon-number detection for quantum information processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1502–1511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

I. Rech, A. Ingargiola, R. Spinelli, I. Labanca, S. Marangoni, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “A new approach to optical crosstalk modeling in single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 330–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

A. Spinelli and A. L. Lacaita, “Physics and numerical simulation of single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(11), 1931–1943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Bigliardi, and M. Manfredi, “On the bremsstrahlung origin of hot-carrier-induced photons in silicon devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 40(3), 577–582 (1993).
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J. Mod. Opt.

M. Bondani, A. Allevi, A. Agliati, and A. Andreoni, “Self-consistent characterization of light statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 226–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon detector,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Mi?uda, O. Haderka, and M. Ježek, “High-efficiency photon-number-resolving multichannel detector,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 025804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 061803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Afek, A. Natan, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum state measurements using multipixel photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Avenhaus, K. Laiho, M. V. Chekhova, and C. Silberhorn, “Accessing higher order correlations in quantum optical states by time multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(6), 063602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. ?ukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with coherent and squeezed-vacuum light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk analsis of integrated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q, 73200Q-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Hamamatsu web-page http://jp.hamamatsu.com/products/sensor-ssd/4010/index_en.html

A. Vacheret, G. J. Barker, M. Dziewiecki, P. Guzowski, M. D. Haigh, B. Hartfiel, A. Izmaylov, W. Johnston, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, Yu. Kudenko, R. Kurjata, T. Kutter, T. Lindner, P. Masliah, J. Marzec, O. Mineev, Yu. Musienko, S. Oser, F. Retiere, R. O. Salih, A. Shaikhiev, L. F. Thompson, M. A. Ward, R. J. Wilson, N. Yershov, K. Zaremba, and M. Ziembicki, “Characterization and simulation of the response of multi pixel photon counters to low light levels,” ArXiv: 1101.1996v1 (2011)

M. Yokoyama, A. Minamino, S. Gomi, K. Ieki, N. Nagai, T. Nakaya, K. Nitta, D. Orme, M. Otani, T. Murakami, T. Nakadaira, and M. Tanaka, “Performance of multi-pixel photon counters for the T2K near detectors,” ArXiv:1007.2712v1 (2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm was used as a source of coherent light. The beam was attenuated by a neutral density filter (ND), and coupled into a single mode fiber (SMF). The intensity of the beam was controlled by two polarizing beamsplitters (PBS) and a half-wave plate (HWP). The beam impinged on the detector under test (MPPC), with the output connected to a data acquisition card (AD card). Calibration of the source was done in a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometer by erecting a flipping mirror (FM). The HBT consisted of a non-polarizing beamsplitter (NPBS) and two avalanche photodiodes (APD) connected to a coincidence circuit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependences of g(2) on the mean number of photocounts per pulse NTotal,CT measured at −4.5°C by the MPPC with 25x25 μm2 (black squares, dashed line), 50x50 μm2 (red circles, dotted line), and 100x100 μm2 pixel size (blue triangles, solid line). Lines are fits to experimental data, yielding COD 0.989, 0.983, and 0.997, for MPPC with 25x25 μm2, 50x50 μm2, and 100x100 μm2 pixel size, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of crosstalk probability p + 2p2 (red squares), found from g(2) measurements, and pDC, measured from the dark noise (black circles) on temperature for MPPC with 50x50 μm2 pixel size. Solid line is a fit with a quadratic function.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Probabilities of Crosstalk Measured for MPPCs with Different Pixel Size at Temperature of −4.5°C

Tables Icon

Table 2 Probabilities of Crosstalk Measured for MPPC with 50x50 μm2 Pixel Size at Different Temperatures

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N DC =ln( N 0,DC / N DC ),
p DC =1 N 1,DC / ( N DC N DC e N DC ) .
g (2) a +2 a 2 / a + a 2 ,
g ( 2 ) = N Coinc / ( N D1 N D2 ) .
g ( 2 ) = 2 k=2 C 2 k N k,CT / ( k=1 k N k,CT ) 2 .
k=1 N 1,CT = N 1 p N 1 p 2 N 1 ,
k=2 N 2,CT = N 2 2p N 2 +p N 1 2 p 2 N 2 ,
k>2 N k,CT = N k kp N k +(k1)p N k1 +(k2) p 2 N k2 k p 2 N k ,
N Coinc,CT =(1+2p+4 p 2 ) k=2 C 2 k N k +p(1+3p) k=1 k N k ,
N Total,CT =(1+p+2 p 2 ) k=1 k N k .
g ( 2 ) ( N Total,CT )= (1+2p+4 p 2 ) (1+p+2 p 2 ) 2 g 0 ( 2 ) + 2p(1+3p) (1+p+2 p 2 ) 1 N Total,CT ,

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