Abstract

The longitudinal distribution of the laser peak intensity inside a half meter long femtosecond laser filament in air is studied by measuring the signal ratio of two nitrogen fluorescence lines, 391 nm and 337 nm. The experimental results reveal that laser peak intensity initially remains almost constant (~4.3 × 1013 W/cm2) inside the filament. However, before the end of the filament, surprisingly the laser intensity undergoes dramatic increase. A maximum intensity as high as 2.8×1014 W/cm2 could be reached. The experimental result is unexpected by the conventional intensity clamping scenario, according to which the laser peak intensity would feature low variation along a filament. The experimental result is then interpreted as being due to the generation of a short pulse at trailing stage of the filamentation with reduced diameter. This phenomenon might be of great interest owing to its potential application in high-order-harmonic generation and producing isolated single attosecond laser pulse through simple experimental approach.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation,” (Springer, New York, 2010).
  6. P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Kolesik, D. Mirell, J.-C. Diels, and J. V. Moloney, “On the higher-order Kerr effect in femtosecond filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3685–3687 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 73–75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. L. Liu, X. Lu, X. Liu, T. T. Xi, F. Liu, J. L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse in air: from filamentation to breakdown,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26007–26017 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11, 68–76 (2001).
  19. A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Multiphoton ionization of inner-valence electrons and fragmentation of ethylene in an intense Ti:Sapphire laser pulse,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(5-6), 789–794 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Xu, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Experimental confirmation of high-stability of fluorescence in a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4800–4804 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Chen, F. Théberge, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Evolution and termination of a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3477–3479 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, D. Mirell, J.-C. Diels, and J. V. Moloney, “On the higher-order Kerr effect in femtosecond filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3685–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Liu, X. Lu, X. Liu, T. T. Xi, F. Liu, J. L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse in air: from filamentation to breakdown,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26007–26017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Experimental confirmation of high-stability of fluorescence in a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4800–4804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Evolution and termination of a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3477–3479 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11, 68–76 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Multiphoton ionization of inner-valence electrons and fragmentation of ethylene in an intense Ti:Sapphire laser pulse,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(5-6), 789–794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Abdel-Fattah, M.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11, 68–76 (2001).

Agostini, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. L.

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Azarm, A.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bagchi, S.

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11, 68–76 (2001).

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Multiphoton ionization of inner-valence electrons and fragmentation of ethylene in an intense Ti:Sapphire laser pulse,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(5-6), 789–794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berger, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, J.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Binhammer, T.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Chakraborty, H. S.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, Y.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Experimental confirmation of high-stability of fluorescence in a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4800–4804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Evolution and termination of a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3477–3479 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11, 68–76 (2001).

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Multiphoton ionization of inner-valence electrons and fragmentation of ethylene in an intense Ti:Sapphire laser pulse,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(5-6), 789–794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiron, A.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diels, J.-C.

Du, D.

Faucher, O.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henin, S.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, E.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Z. G.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y. H.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamali, Y.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Evolution and termination of a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3477–3479 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiran, P. P.

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kovacev, M.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, S. R.

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. R.

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lange, H. R.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lavorel, B.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leng, Y. X.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. Y.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, J. S.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Experimental confirmation of high-stability of fluorescence in a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4800–4804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, X. L.

Loriot, V.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

Lu, X. M.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. L.

Mirell, D.

Moloney, J. V.

Morgner, U.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N.

Ripoche, J. F.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, E.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharifi, M.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P. T.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Steingrube, D. S.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11, 68–76 (2001).

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Multiphoton ionization of inner-valence electrons and fragmentation of ethylene in an intense Ti:Sapphire laser pulse,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(5-6), 789–794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Evolution and termination of a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3477–3479 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vieillard, T.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. X.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xi, T. T.

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Experimental confirmation of high-stability of fluorescence in a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4800–4804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Multiphoton ionization of inner-valence electrons and fragmentation of ethylene in an intense Ti:Sapphire laser pulse,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(5-6), 789–794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

S. Xu, X. Sun, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Zhao, W. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Simple method of measuring laser peak intensity inside femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Express 20(1), 299–307 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y.

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Experimental confirmation of high-stability of fluorescence in a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4800–4804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Multiphoton ionization of inner-valence electrons and fragmentation of ethylene in an intense Ti:Sapphire laser pulse,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(5-6), 789–794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (3)

Z. G. Ji, J. S. Liu, Z. X. Wang, J. Ju, X. M. Lu, Y. H. Jiang, Y. X. Leng, X. Y. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4 J/60 fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11, 68–76 (2001).

New J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Xu, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Experimental confirmation of high-stability of fluorescence in a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4800–4804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

P. P. Kiran, S. Bagchi, S. R. Krishnan, C. L. Arnold, G. R. Kumar, and A. Couairon, “Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: microscopic imaging and reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 013805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, H. Gao, W. Liu, G. Li, H. Zhang, J. Yao, J. Ni, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J. P. Wolf, “Higher-order Kerr terms allow ionization-free filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Berger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation,” (Springer, New York, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Inset (a) laser pattern recorded by burn paper at z = 95 cm, z = 110 cm and z = 130 cm, with respect to the convex lens. Inset (b) end views of the fiber bundle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Longitudinal distribution of nitrogen fluorescence signal—black line: 337 nm; red line: 357 nm; blue line: 391 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of R = S391nm/S337nm versus distance (black line, left label) and the retrieved laser peak intensity according to Eq. (3) (red line, right label).

Equations (3)

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R S 391 S 337 a I n1 a I n1 +b I n2 .
I=β ( α R 1) m ,
I=79× ( 2.6 R 1 ) 0.34 × 10 12 W/ cm 2

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