Abstract

The characterization of dyes in various solvents requires determination of the absorption spectrum of the dye as well as the refractive index of the solvent. Typically, the refractive index of the solvent and the absorption spectrum of the solute are measured using separate experimental setups where significant liquid volumes are required. In this work the first optical measurement system that is able to do simultaneous measurements of the refractive index of the solvent and the spectral properties of the solute in a microscopic volume is presented. The laser dye Rhodamine 6G in glycerol is investigated, and the refractive index of the solution is monitored using the interference pattern of the light scattered off the channel, while its spectral properties is found by monitoring reflected light from the channel.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (6)

2010 (6)

Y. H. Tsai and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive liquid refractive index sensors using tapered optical fiber tips,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 944–946 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “Optical sensing of concentration and refractive index of pigments in a suspension,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3428–3433 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tavassoly and A. Saber, “Optical refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase wedge,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3679–3681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lei, H. Li, J. Shi, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic refractometer with integrated optical fibers and end-facet transmission gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(2), 023103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marin, M. Joanicot, and P. Tabeling, “Microchannel edge refractometry,” Sens. Acta B 148(1), 330–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “A method for the detection of the refractive index of irregular shape solid pigments in light absorbing liquid matrix,” Talanta 81(4-5), 1322–1324 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

A. Sabatyan and M. T. Tavassoly, “Determination of refractive indices of liquids by Fresnel diffraction,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(7), 892–896 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Helseth and T. Skodvin, “Optical monitoring of low-field magnetophoretic separation of particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 095202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. C. Wu, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 322–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Yu, G. Y. Zhou, F. S. Chau, and F. W. Lee, “Phase-transmission-grating-based compact optofluidic refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1753–1755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Calixto, M. Rosete-Aguilar, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and V. P. Minkovich, “Capillary refractometer integrated in a microfluidic configuration,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 843–848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Brennan, P. Lambkin, and P. Galvin, “Refractive index measurements in a shallow multichannel microfluidic system,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 085403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huuskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lu, S. P. Pan, T. S. Liu, and C. F. Kao, “Liquid refractometer based on immersion diffractometry,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9470–9475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

D. G. Yablon and A. M. Schilowitz, “Solvatochromism of nile red in nonpolar solvents,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(7), 843–847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Markov, K. Swinney, and D. J. Bornhop, “Label-free molecular interaction determinations with nanoscale interferometry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(50), 16659–16664 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Singh, “Refractive index measurements and its applications,” Phys. Scr. 65(2), 167–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Hübner, K. B. Mogensen, A. M. Jorgensen, P. Friis, P. Telleman, and J. P. Kutter, “Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 229–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kameoka and H. G. Craighead, “Nanofabricated refractive index sensor based on photon tunnelling in nanofluidic channel,” Sens. Acta B 77(3), 632–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Swinney, D. Markov, and D. J. Bornhop, “Micro-interferometric backscatter detection using a diode laser,” Anal. Chim. Acta 400(1-3), 265–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Toptygin, B. Z. Packard, and L. Brand, “Resolution of absorption spectra of rhodamine 6G aggregates in aqueous solution using the law of mass action,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277(5-6), 430–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Reichardt, “Solvatochromic dyes as solvent polarity indicators,” Chem. Rev. 94(8), 2319–2358 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

D. J. Bornhop and N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58(2), 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hinckley, P. Seybold, and D. P. Borris, “Solvatochromism and thermochromism of rhodamine solutions,” Spectochmica Acta. 42(6), 747–754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1972 (1)

J. E. Selwyn and J. I. Steinfeld, “Aggregation equilibria of xanthene dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. 76(5), 762–774 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bedoya, A. C.

Bornhop, D. J.

D. A. Markov, K. Swinney, and D. J. Bornhop, “Label-free molecular interaction determinations with nanoscale interferometry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(50), 16659–16664 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Swinney, D. Markov, and D. J. Bornhop, “Micro-interferometric backscatter detection using a diode laser,” Anal. Chim. Acta 400(1-3), 265–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bornhop and N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58(2), 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Borris, D. P.

D. A. Hinckley, P. Seybold, and D. P. Borris, “Solvatochromism and thermochromism of rhodamine solutions,” Spectochmica Acta. 42(6), 747–754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brand, L.

D. Toptygin, B. Z. Packard, and L. Brand, “Resolution of absorption spectra of rhodamine 6G aggregates in aqueous solution using the law of mass action,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277(5-6), 430–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, D.

D. Brennan, P. Lambkin, and P. Galvin, “Refractive index measurements in a shallow multichannel microfluidic system,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 085403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calixto, S.

Chau, F. S.

Chen, Y.

L. Lei, H. Li, J. Shi, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic refractometer with integrated optical fibers and end-facet transmission gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(2), 023103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craighead, H. G.

J. Kameoka and H. G. Craighead, “Nanofabricated refractive index sensor based on photon tunnelling in nanofluidic channel,” Sens. Acta B 77(3), 632–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

Dovichi, N. J.

D. J. Bornhop and N. J. Dovichi, “Simple nanoliter refractive index detector,” Anal. Chem. 58(2), 504–505 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Friis, P.

J. Hübner, K. B. Mogensen, A. M. Jorgensen, P. Friis, P. Telleman, and J. P. Kutter, “Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 229–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galvin, P.

D. Brennan, P. Lambkin, and P. Galvin, “Refractive index measurements in a shallow multichannel microfluidic system,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 085403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Gupta, M.

Hafner, J. H.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helseth, L. E.

L. E. Helseth and T. Skodvin, “Optical monitoring of low-field magnetophoretic separation of particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 095202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hinckley, D. A.

D. A. Hinckley, P. Seybold, and D. P. Borris, “Solvatochromism and thermochromism of rhodamine solutions,” Spectochmica Acta. 42(6), 747–754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

B. Xiong and J. Hu, “Laser-based refractive index determination for micro-channels,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(4), 635–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, J.

J. Hübner, K. B. Mogensen, A. M. Jorgensen, P. Friis, P. Telleman, and J. P. Kutter, “Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 229–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huuskens, J.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huuskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janowska-Wieczorek, A.

Joanicot, M.

A. Marin, M. Joanicot, and P. Tabeling, “Microchannel edge refractometry,” Sens. Acta B 148(1), 330–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, A. M.

J. Hübner, K. B. Mogensen, A. M. Jorgensen, P. Friis, P. Telleman, and J. P. Kutter, “Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 229–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kameoka, J.

J. Kameoka and H. G. Craighead, “Nanofabricated refractive index sensor based on photon tunnelling in nanofluidic channel,” Sens. Acta B 77(3), 632–637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. F.

Khashan, M. A.

Kirkwood, S. E.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Kuswandi, B.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huuskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kutter, J. P.

J. Hübner, K. B. Mogensen, A. M. Jorgensen, P. Friis, P. Telleman, and J. P. Kutter, “Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 229–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lambkin, P.

D. Brennan, P. Lambkin, and P. Galvin, “Refractive index measurements in a shallow multichannel microfluidic system,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 085403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, F. W.

Lei, L.

L. Lei, H. Li, J. Shi, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic refractometer with integrated optical fibers and end-facet transmission gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(2), 023103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leupacher, W.

Li, H.

L. Lei, H. Li, J. Shi, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic refractometer with integrated optical fibers and end-facet transmission gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(2), 023103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T. S.

Lu, S. H.

Manchee, C. P. K.

Mansuripur, M.

Marin, A.

A. Marin, M. Joanicot, and P. Tabeling, “Microchannel edge refractometry,” Sens. Acta B 148(1), 330–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Markov, D.

K. Swinney, D. Markov, and D. J. Bornhop, “Micro-interferometric backscatter detection using a diode laser,” Anal. Chim. Acta 400(1-3), 265–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Markov, D. A.

D. A. Markov, K. Swinney, and D. J. Bornhop, “Label-free molecular interaction determinations with nanoscale interferometry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(50), 16659–16664 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquez-Curtis, L.

Mayer, K. M.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meldrum, A.

Minkovich, V. P.

Mogensen, K. B.

J. Hübner, K. B. Mogensen, A. M. Jorgensen, P. Friis, P. Telleman, and J. P. Kutter, “Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 229–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Nassif, A. Y.

Niskanen, I.

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “Optical sensing of concentration and refractive index of pigments in a suspension,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3428–3433 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “A method for the detection of the refractive index of irregular shape solid pigments in light absorbing liquid matrix,” Talanta 81(4-5), 1322–1324 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuriman, J.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huuskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Packard, B. Z.

D. Toptygin, B. Z. Packard, and L. Brand, “Resolution of absorption spectra of rhodamine 6G aggregates in aqueous solution using the law of mass action,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277(5-6), 430–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. P.

Peiponen, K. E.

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “A method for the detection of the refractive index of irregular shape solid pigments in light absorbing liquid matrix,” Talanta 81(4-5), 1322–1324 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “Optical sensing of concentration and refractive index of pigments in a suspension,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3428–3433 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penzkofer, A.

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Qiu, Y. Y.

Räty, J.

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “A method for the detection of the refractive index of irregular shape solid pigments in light absorbing liquid matrix,” Talanta 81(4-5), 1322–1324 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K. E. Peiponen, “Optical sensing of concentration and refractive index of pigments in a suspension,” Appl. Opt. 49(17), 3428–3433 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichardt, C.

C. Reichardt, “Solvatochromic dyes as solvent polarity indicators,” Chem. Rev. 94(8), 2319–2358 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rosete-Aguilar, M.

Rozmus, W.

Sabatyan, A.

A. Sabatyan and M. T. Tavassoly, “Determination of refractive indices of liquids by Fresnel diffraction,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(7), 892–896 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saber, A.

Schilowitz, A. M.

Selwyn, J. E.

J. E. Selwyn and J. I. Steinfeld, “Aggregation equilibria of xanthene dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. 76(5), 762–774 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Seybold, P.

D. A. Hinckley, P. Seybold, and D. P. Borris, “Solvatochromism and thermochromism of rhodamine solutions,” Spectochmica Acta. 42(6), 747–754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

L. Lei, H. Li, J. Shi, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic refractometer with integrated optical fibers and end-facet transmission gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(2), 023103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silverstone, J. W.

Singh, S.

S. Singh, “Refractive index measurements and its applications,” Phys. Scr. 65(2), 167–180 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skodvin, T.

L. E. Helseth and T. Skodvin, “Optical monitoring of low-field magnetophoretic separation of particles,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 095202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sotskaya, L. I.

Sotsky, A. B.

Steinfeld, J. I.

J. E. Selwyn and J. I. Steinfeld, “Aggregation equilibria of xanthene dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. 76(5), 762–774 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Su, X. T.

Swinney, K.

D. A. Markov, K. Swinney, and D. J. Bornhop, “Label-free molecular interaction determinations with nanoscale interferometry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(50), 16659–16664 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Swinney, D. Markov, and D. J. Bornhop, “Micro-interferometric backscatter detection using a diode laser,” Anal. Chim. Acta 400(1-3), 265–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tabeling, P.

A. Marin, M. Joanicot, and P. Tabeling, “Microchannel edge refractometry,” Sens. Acta B 148(1), 330–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tavassoly, M. T.

M. T. Tavassoly and A. Saber, “Optical refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase wedge,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3679–3681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sabatyan and M. T. Tavassoly, “Determination of refractive indices of liquids by Fresnel diffraction,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(7), 892–896 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Telleman, P.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fringe shift versus glycerol concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified ray model of the light propagation towards the camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The transmittance versus concentration of rhodamine R6G.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The transmittance as a function of wavelength for four different rhodamine 6G concentrations (a). The transmittance is converted to molar absorption coefficient using Eq. (2) with γ = 1.1 (b)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fringe shift as a function of glycerol concentration in presence of rhodamine 6G.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The transmittance of rhodamine 6G as a function of wavelength for seven different glycerol concentrations. The glycerol concentrations are indicated in the figure, while the rhodamine 6G concentrations are given in the text.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The wavelength shift of rhodamine 6G as a function of glycerol concentration. The corresponding rhodamine 6G concentrations are given in the text.

Equations (2)

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T= 1+γ e 2εcL 1+γ ,
ε( λ,c )= 1 2cL ln[ T( 1 γ +1 ) 1 γ ].

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