Abstract

We show that cheap large area color filters, based on surface scattering, can be fabricated in dielectric materials by replication of random structures in silicon. The specular transmittance of three different types of structures, corresponding to three different colors, have been characterized. The angle resolved scattering has been measured and compared to predictions based on the measured surface topography and by the use of non-paraxial scalar diffraction theory. From this it is shown that the color of the transmitted light can be predicted from the topography of the randomly textured surfaces.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79–84 (1967).
  2. P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the moth eye principle,” Nature 244, 281–282 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yoon, H. Lee, S. Lee, S. Kim, J. Park, and K. Lee, “Color filter incorporating a subwavelength patterned grating in poly silicon,” Opt. Express 16, 2374–2380 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Lee, Y. Yoon, S. Lee, S. Kim, and K. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express 15, 15457–15463 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ye, Y. Zhou, H. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Polarizing color filter based on a subwavelength metal-dielectric grating,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1356–1363 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Hu, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, “Color filters based on enhanced optical transmission of subwavelength-structured metallic film for multicolor organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4275–4279 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Leitel, A. Kaless, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Broadband antireflective structures on pmma by plasma treatment,” Plasma Process. Polym. 4, S878–S881 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Schift and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprint lithography—patterning of resists using molding,” in Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, B. Bhushan, ed. (Springer, 2010), pp. 271–312.
  14. L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Jansen, M. d. Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 115–120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Domine, F. J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. E. Harvey, “Fourier treatment of near-field scalar diffraction theory,” Am. J. Phys. 47, 974 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. Harvey, C. L. Vernold, A. Krywonos, and P. L. Thompson, “Diffracted radiance: a fundamental quantity in nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6469–6481 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2011

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ye, Y. Zhou, H. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Polarizing color filter based on a subwavelength metal-dielectric grating,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1356–1363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. Domine, F. J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoon, H. Lee, S. Lee, S. Kim, J. Park, and K. Lee, “Color filter incorporating a subwavelength patterned grating in poly silicon,” Opt. Express 16, 2374–2380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hu, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, “Color filters based on enhanced optical transmission of subwavelength-structured metallic film for multicolor organic light-emitting diode display,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4275–4279 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitel, A. Kaless, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Broadband antireflective structures on pmma by plasma treatment,” Plasma Process. Polym. 4, S878–S881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, Y. Yoon, S. Lee, S. Kim, and K. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express 15, 15457–15463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

1995

H. Jansen, M. d. Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. E. Harvey, “Fourier treatment of near-field scalar diffraction theory,” Am. J. Phys. 47, 974 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the moth eye principle,” Nature 244, 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967

C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79–84 (1967).

Aura, S.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

D. Domine, F. J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

D. Domine, F. J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, M.

S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, C. G.

C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79–84 (1967).

Boer, M. d.

H. Jansen, M. d. Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chou, C.

C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clapham, P. B.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the moth eye principle,” Nature 244, 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Domine, D.

D. Domine, F. J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwenspoek, M.

H. Jansen, M. d. Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Franssila, S.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C.

C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

Haug, F. J.

D. Domine, F. J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Huang, M.

C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutley, M. C.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the moth eye principle,” Nature 244, 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, H.

H. Jansen, M. d. Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jokinen, V.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitel, A. Kaless, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Broadband antireflective structures on pmma by plasma treatment,” Plasma Process. Polym. 4, S878–S881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaless, A.

R. Leitel, A. Kaless, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Broadband antireflective structures on pmma by plasma treatment,” Plasma Process. Polym. 4, S878–S881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kinoshita, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

H. Schift and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprint lithography—patterning of resists using molding,” in Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, B. Bhushan, ed. (Springer, 2010), pp. 271–312.

Krywonos, A.

Lee, H.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Legtenberg, R.

H. Jansen, M. d. Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leitel, R.

R. Leitel, A. Kaless, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Broadband antireflective structures on pmma by plasma treatment,” Plasma Process. Polym. 4, S878–S881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, J.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Munzert, P.

I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Sainiemi, L.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schift, H.

H. Schift and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprint lithography—patterning of resists using molding,” in Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, B. Bhushan, ed. (Springer, 2010), pp. 271–312.

Schulz, U.

I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitel, A. Kaless, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Broadband antireflective structures on pmma by plasma treatment,” Plasma Process. Polym. 4, S878–S881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimono, M.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shpak, M.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suvanto, P.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, P. L.

Ting, C.

C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.

C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vernold, C. L.

Wendling, I.

I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Ye, Y.

Yoon, Y.

Yoshioka, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, L.

Zhang, H.

Zhou, Y.

Adv. Mater.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Nonreflecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater. 23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

J. E. Harvey, “Fourier treatment of near-field scalar diffraction theory,” Am. J. Phys. 47, 974 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Endeavour

C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79–84 (1967).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Domine, F. J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

H. Jansen, M. d. Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechno.

S. Aura, V. Jokinen, L. Sainiemi, M. Baumann, and S. Franssila, “UV-embossed inorganic-organic hybrid nanopillars for bioapplications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechno. 9, 6710–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

C. Ting, M. Huang, H. Tsai, C. Chou, and C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19, 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the moth eye principle,” Nature 244, 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Plasma Process. Polym.

R. Leitel, A. Kaless, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, “Broadband antireflective structures on pmma by plasma treatment,” Plasma Process. Polym. 4, S878–S881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Wendling, P. Munzert, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Creating anti-reflective nanostructures on polymers by initial layer deposition before plasma etching,” Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S716–S721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 076401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Schift and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprint lithography—patterning of resists using molding,” in Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, B. Bhushan, ed. (Springer, 2010), pp. 271–312.

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