Abstract

This paper presents the first chip-scale demonstration of an intra-chip free-space optical interconnect (FSOI) we recently proposed. This interconnect system provides point-to-point free-space optical links between any two communication nodes, and hence constructs an all-to-all intra-chip communication fabric, which can be extended for inter-chip communications as well. Unlike electrical and other waveguide-based optical interconnects, FSOI exhibits low latency, high energy efficiency, and large bandwidth density, and hence can significantly improve the performance of future many-core chips. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the proposed FSOI interconnect, and compare it to a waveguide-based optical interconnect with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). It shows that the FSOI system can achieve significantly lower loss and higher energy efficiency than the WDM system, even with optimistic assumptions for the latter. A 1×1-cm2 chip prototype is fabricated on a germanium substrate with integrated photodetectors. Commercial 850-nm GaAs vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-lasers (VCSELs) and fabricated fused silica microlenses are 3-D integrated on top of the substrate. At 1.4-cm distance, the measured optical transmission loss is 5 dB, the crosstalk is less than −20 dB, and the electrical-to-electrical bandwidth is 3.3 GHz. The latter is mainly limited by the 5-GHz VCSEL.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

2010

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

2009

2007

2006

M. J. McFadden, M. Iqbal, T. Dillon, R. Nair, T. Gu, D. W. Prather, and M. W. Haney, “Multiscale free-space optics interconnects for intrachip global communication: motivation, analysis, and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 45(25), 6358–6366 (2006).
[PubMed]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

2003

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

2002

F. T. O’Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production part I: background and experiments,” Optik 113(9), 391–404 (2002).

2001

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

2000

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

1999

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

1994

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections”, Proc. IEEE 82(11), 769–779 (1994).

1984

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Ahearn, J. S.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Ahn, J.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Asghari, M.

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Baks, C. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Baukens, V.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Beausoleil, R. G.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Berman, R.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Binkert, N.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Block, B.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Bour, D. P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Brunfaut, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Budd, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Cardenas, J.

Chandramani, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Chang, P.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Chang, Y. -C.

Y. -C. Chang and L. A. Coldren, “Optimization of VCSEL structure for high-speed operation,” IEEE 21st Int. Semiconductor Laser Conf., ISLC 159–160 (2008).

Chen, L.

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Christensen, M. P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Chteauneuf, M.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Ciftcioglu, B.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Coldren, L. A.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Y. -C. Chang and L. A. Coldren, “Optimization of VCSEL structure for high-speed operation,” IEEE 21st Int. Semiconductor Laser Conf., ISLC 159–160 (2008).

Dangel, R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Darling, Z.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

Davis, A.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Debaes, C.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Dillon, T.

Doany, F. E.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Dong, P.

Ekman, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Fattal, D.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Faucher, J.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Feng, D.

Fiorentino, M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Fokken, G. J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Friedman, E.

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Friedman, E. G.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

Garg, A.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Gilbert, B. K.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Gu, T.

Guckenberger, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Haney, M. W.

M. J. McFadden, M. Iqbal, T. Dillon, R. Nair, T. Gu, D. W. Prather, and M. W. Haney, “Multiscale free-space optics interconnects for intrachip global communication: motivation, analysis, and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 45(25), 6358–6366 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Hanney, M.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Hegblom, E. R.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Hegde, S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Hermanne, A.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Horst, F.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Hu, J.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

Hu, Jianyun

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Huang, M.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Iqbal, M.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections”, Proc. IEEE 82(11), 769–779 (1994).

Jain, M.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

John, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Jouppi, N. P.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Kash, J. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Kern, A.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Kiamilev, F.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Kirk, A. G.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Ko, J.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kucharski, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Kuchta, D. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Kung, C. -C.

Kung, S. -Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Kwark, Y. H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Laprise, E.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, J.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Liao, S.

Libsch, F. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Lin, C. -K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Lipson, M.

Liu, P.

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Louderback, D.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Manipatruni, S.

McFadden, M. J.

McLaren, M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Meeus, W.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).

Milojkovic, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Mohammed, E.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Moore, D.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Nair, R.

Nakagawa, S.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Nyikal, H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Nystrom, M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

O’Neill, F. T.

F. T. O’Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production part I: background and experiments,” Optik 113(9), 391–404 (2002).

Offrein, B. J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Ottevaere, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Palermo, S.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Patel, C. S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Poitras, C. B.

Prather, D. W.

Preston, K.

Qian, W.

Razavi, K.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Reshotko, M.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Rieve, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Robinson, J. T.

Rosner, J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Santori, C. M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Savidis, I.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Schares, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Schaub, J. D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Schmidt, B.

Schow, C. L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Schreiber, R. S.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Schuster, C.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shan, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Sheridan, J. T.

F. T. O’Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production part I: background and experiments,” Optik 113(9), 391–404 (2002).

Sjolund, O.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Sobolewski, R.

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

Spillane, S. M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Tan, M. R. T.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Tandon, A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Thienpont, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Trewhella, J. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Trott, G. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Tsang, C. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Tuteleers, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Van Campenhout, J.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Vantrease, D.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Venditti, M. B.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Verschaffelt, G.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Vervaeke, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Vickberg, M.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Volckaerts, B.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Vynck, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Wang, S.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional and (b) 3-D view of the proposed FSOI system implemented as a 3-D integrated chip stack for a multi-core microprocessor. Note that the VCSEL arrays are in the center and the photodetectors are on the periphery within each core.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The calculated (a) optical loss and (b) energy efficiency of the FSOI and WDM-based optical interconnect systems with respect to increasing number of nodes. The breakdown of the loss components for the WDM system is shown with dash lines. In this calculation, the transceiver electronics (laser driver and receiver) are not included in the total power consumption.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional view of the chip-level intra-chip FSOI prototype.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the FSOI link designed for the chip prototype. The total distance is 1.4 cm, corresponding to crossing the chip diagonally.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated beam waist size and position from the VCSEL microlens. The beam waist distance needs to be 7 mm or longer for a 1.4-cm throw distance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated optical transmission (a) when the PD capture all incoming light and (b) for different PD size, with respect to relative position of the VCSEL to the focal point of its microlens. The link distance is 1.4 cm, and the light bounces twice on the 95% reflective mirrors. Note that all incoming light is captured by the PD larger than 45-μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated optical transmission (a) with respect to optical pathway at different relative distances of the VCSEL to microlens focal point and (b) for in-plane misalignment of the VCSEL source with respect to central axis of the lens at different distances.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated (a) dark current with respect to bias voltage and (b) small-signal frequency response of the MSM Ge PD at 7-V bias and 850-nm illumination.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The fabricated 62×62-μm2 Ge MSM PD with 98-nm Si3N4 anti-reflection coating under 850-nm illumination: (a) PD structure, (b) responsivity and dark current, (c) impulse response using 50-GHz sampling oscilloscope at 7-V and 10-V bias, (d) DFT converted frequency response. The dark current density is measured as 1.7 nA/μm2 at 7-V.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Images of the Ge carrier and fused silica microlens layer in the chip prototype.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) The measured shape of the photoresist after the melt and reflow process, (b) spot sizes of collimated beams at the back surface of the 200-μm and 220-μm aperture size lenses. Based on the photoresist refractive index of 1.54 and the measured radius of curvature of 384 μm, the focal length in air is calculated as 710-μm for the 220-μm aperture lens. The peak-to-peak surface roughness is approximately 0.9 μm, corresponding to a measured 1-dB optical loss.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Transmission and crosstalk for increasing different link distances, and (b) small-signal bandwidth at L=1-cm distance. Note that the optical transmission changes between −4 dB and −11 dB at 1 and 3.5-cm distances due to the scattering and clipping losses of the microlenses. The loss can further be alleviated by using larger NA lenses with smoother surface.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Simulated small-signal bandwidth of the MSM PD, commercial VCSEL and the overall link, including device parasitics, and (b) measured small-signal bandwidth using a 10-GHz VCSEL, when the PD chip is placed facing VCSEL chip without any mirrors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photonic Device Parameters for the FSOI and WDM Optical Interconnect Systems

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I L W G = L N × ( N 1 ) × α W G + 2 × ( N 1 ) × I L bend
I L modulators = N × ( I L mod + I L mod 2 )
I L W D M = 2.3 N × ( N 1 ) × 0.3 + 2 × ( N 1 ) × 0.05 + N × ( 0.0438 + 0.0662 ) d B = 0.69 N 1 N + 0.1 ( N 1 ) + 0.11 N d B
Current Gain I photogen , PD I modulated , VCSEL = η eff , slope × R P D × η transmission

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