Abstract

We show that fabrication of three-dimensional microfluidic channels embedded in glass can be achieved by using a Q-switched, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The processing mainly consists of two steps: (1) formation of hollow microfluidic channels in porous glass immersed in Rhodamine 6G dissolved in water by nanosecond laser ablation; and (2) postannealing of the fabricated porous glass sample at 1120 °C for consolidation of the sample. In particular, a bilayer microfluidic structure is created in glass substrate using this technique for showcasing its capability of three-dimensional structuring.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
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  7. F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 282–284 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, “One-step microfabrication of fused silica by laser ablation of an organic solution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(1), 111–113 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Vass, K. Osvay, and B. Hopp, “Fabrication of 150 nm period grating in fused silica by two-beam interferometric laser induced backside wet etching method,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8354–8359 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schaap, Y. Bellouard, and T. Rohrlack, “Optofluidic lab-on-a-chip for rapid algae population screening,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of photosensitive glass for biomicrochips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 386–400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

S. Rajesh and Y. Bellouard, “Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21490–21497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 282–284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vass, K. Osvay, and B. Hopp, “Fabrication of 150 nm period grating in fused silica by two-beam interferometric laser induced backside wet etching method,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8354–8359 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfabrication of 3D hollow structures embedded in glass by femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 248(1-4), 172–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, “Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 99(1), 186–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schülzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” Appl. Opt. 43(23), 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2007–2009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, “One-step microfabrication of fused silica by laser ablation of an organic solution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(1), 111–113 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, “Miniaturized total chemical analysis systems: a novel concept for chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1(1-6), 244–248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akai, T.

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

An, R.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beebe, D. J.

B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, N.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

Bellouard, Y.

Bragheri, F.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

Cerullo, G.

F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, T.

C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Cheng, C.

C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, “Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 99(1), 186–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 282–284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfabrication of 3D hollow structures embedded in glass by femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 248(1-4), 172–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2007–2009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, C.

C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, T. Y.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cristiani, I.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

Ding, X.

H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dongre, C.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dou, Y.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, L.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

Giridhar, M. S.

Gong, Q.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graber, N.

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, “Miniaturized total chemical analysis systems: a novel concept for chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1(1-6), 244–248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanada, Y.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of photosensitive glass for biomicrochips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 386–400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Hiromatsu, K.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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Hopp, B.

Hsu, K.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, “Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 99(1), 186–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
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M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
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Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
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Jeon, H.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
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B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
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Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
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H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, H.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, K.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khulbe, P.

Kim, M.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Lee, C.

C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
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Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
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Liu, D.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
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Manz, A.

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Masuda, M.

Matsuo, S.

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F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of photosensitive glass for biomicrochips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 386–400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 282–284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfabrication of 3D hollow structures embedded in glass by femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 248(1-4), 172–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2007–2009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Miyawaki, A.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Motsegood, K. M.

B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, “One-step microfabrication of fused silica by laser ablation of an organic solution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(1), 111–113 (1999).
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Osellame, R.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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Peyghambarian, N.

Pollnau, M.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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Ramponi, R.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

Resnati, G.

F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
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Sato, T.

H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
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Schülzgen, A.

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Shen, Y.

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Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Sugioka, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 282–284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of photosensitive glass for biomicrochips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 386–400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfabrication of 3D hollow structures embedded in glass by femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 248(1-4), 172–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2007–2009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003).
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Toyoda, K.

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A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
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Vazquez, R. M.

F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
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F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010).
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F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, “One-step microfabrication of fused silica by laser ablation of an organic solution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(1), 111–113 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, “Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 99(1), 186–196 (2004).
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A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, “Miniaturized total chemical analysis systems: a novel concept for chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1(1-6), 244–248 (1990).
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Xu, J.

Xu, Y.

Xu, Z.

Yabe, A.

H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, “One-step microfabrication of fused silica by laser ablation of an organic solution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(1), 111–113 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yang, H.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, Y.

H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, T.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, “Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 99(1), 186–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

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Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
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Anal. Chem.

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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

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D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004).
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Appl. Surf. Sci.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfabrication of 3D hollow structures embedded in glass by femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 248(1-4), 172–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Microdevices

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008).
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Biomed. Opt. Express

Biomicrofluid.

C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010).
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Lab Chip

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010).
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Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011).
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M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009).
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Laser Photon. Rev.

K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of photosensitive glass for biomicrochips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 386–400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011).
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Nature

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Opt. Express

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Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 282–284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003).
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Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2007–2009 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of experimental setup. (b) Flow chart for the whole fabrication process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top view optical micrograph of 3D microfluidic channels embedded in porous glass before post-annealing. (b) Closed-up view of microchannel partially filled with water before post-annealing. (c) Fluorescence microscopy image of the microchannels filled with a solution of fluorescein. The confined fluorescent solution gives a proof that the nanopores have all collapsed to form the consolidated substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of the cross-sectional view of the cleaved microchannels after the postanneanling. Small cracks can be found near the microchannel. The pulse energy chosen for fabricating each channel is indicated in the SEM image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM image of the innerwall of the microfluidic channel after post-annealing.

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