Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel electrical tracing-assisted dual-microring resonator-based optical sensor system in silicon-on-insulator substrate. The system comprises one microring resonator-based sensing element and another microring resonator-based tracing element integrated with electrical controller. The resonance wavelength shift of sensing microring induced by the refractive index change is traced and determined by direct voltage supply of the electrical tunable tracing microring. Such optical sensing system eliminates the traditional wavelength-scanning method thus provide a cost effective sensing scheme. Proof-of-principle demonstration by testing polyelectrolyte multilayer shows the sensitivity of ~4.0 mW/ng∙mm−2 and the detection limit of ~5.35 pg/mm2.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

J. Song, Q. Fang, X. Luo, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Thermo-optical tunable planar ridge microdisk resonator in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11220–11227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T.-Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. J. Monk and D. R. Walt, “Optical fiber-based biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 931–945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, “Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 81(2-3), 316–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. Brandenburg, “Differential refractometry by an integrated-optical Young interferometer,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 39(1-3), 266–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, “Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward Layered Polymeric Multicomposites,” Science 277(5330), 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bañuls, M. J.

Barrios, C. A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosch, M. E.

M. E. Bosch, A. J. Ruiz Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, “Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7(6), 797–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, “Differential refractometry by an integrated-optical Young interferometer,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 39(1-3), 266–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H.

J. Song, Q. Fang, X. Luo, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Thermo-optical tunable planar ridge microdisk resonator in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11220–11227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, “Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 81(2-3), 316–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, “Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward Layered Polymeric Multicomposites,” Science 277(5330), 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Erickson, D.

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabricius, N.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

Fauchet, P. M.

Fung, W.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, J. M.

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González-Pedro, V.

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griol, A.

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Heebner, J. E.

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holgado, M.

Hollenbach, U.

Ingenhoff, J.

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Kwong, D.-L.

Lapointe, J.

Lee, M. R.

Li, P.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, “Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 81(2-3), 316–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, B.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, “Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 81(2-3), 316–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, Q. Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lopinski, G.

Luff, B. J.

Luo, X.

Ma, R.

Mandal, S.

S. Mandal, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “A multiplexed optofluidic biomolecular sensor for low mass detection,” Lab Chip 9(20), 2924–2932 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maquieira, A.

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monk, D. J.

D. J. Monk and D. R. Walt, “Optical fiber-based biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 931–945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ojeda, C. B.

M. E. Bosch, A. J. Ruiz Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, “Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7(6), 797–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, J.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, “Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 81(2-3), 316–328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piehler, J.

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojas, F. S.

M. E. Bosch, A. J. Ruiz Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, “Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7(6), 797–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz Sánchez, A. J.

M. E. Bosch, A. J. Ruiz Sánchez, F. S. Rojas, and C. B. Ojeda, “Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7(6), 797–859 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, B.

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, J. H.

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

Song, J.

Song, J. F.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, S. H.

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vachon, M.

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walt, D. R.

D. J. Monk and D. R. Walt, “Optical fiber-based biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 931–945 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the proposed electrical tracing-assisted dual-microring resonator-based optical sensing system, which adopts two serial cascaded add-drop microring resonators. (b), (c) Working principle of the sensor system. (b) Before refractive index change. The tracing microring requires electrical power W1 in order to trace and align the resonances with that of the sensing microring. (c) After refractive index change. The resonance shift of the sensing microring due to the refractive index change Δn is Δλs, which requires W2 electrical power for the tracing microring to trace and align with the shifted resonance. The effective index change Δn can be extracted from the electrical power change of W2W1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Layout design of the dual-microring based sensing system. Optical microscopes of the fabricated (b) sensing microring, and (c) tracing ring integrated with thermal heater.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured transmission spectra of the tracing ring upon different DC voltages. (b) Resonance wavelength positions as functions of the supplied electrical powers. Linear fitting shows the thermal tuning efficiency of ~0.1 nm/mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Testing setup of tracing-, sensing-ring biosensor. BPTF: Band pass tunable filter. PC: Polarization controller. PS: power supply. OPM: Optical power meter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmission spectra for the tracing ring (1-1', blue line), the sensing ring (3-3′, greed line) and the tunable filter (red line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical response for different polymer periods. (b) Linear fitting for electrical power according to maximum optical response.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Normalized optical power vs. electrical voltage. (b) Zoom-in views of the optical power in range of 0.9~1. Inset: the distribution of fitted electrical powers at the peak powers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measured transmission spectra upon different polymer periods. (b) Linear fitting of resonance wavelengths of the sensing ring.

Equations (3)

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λ t =AW+C=A V 2 /R+C
Δ λ t =AΔW=2AVΔV/R
0 + F s ( λ ) F t ( λ )dλ = 0 + 1 1+4 ( λ λ s ) 2 / δ s 2 1 1+4 ( λ λ t ) 2 / δ t 2 dλ = π δ s δ t 2( δ s + δ t ) 1 1+4 ( ΔW ) 2 / ( δ s /A + δ t /A ) 2

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