Abstract

Coherent pulse interleaving implemented in planar waveguide technology is presented as a compact and robust solution to generate high repetition rate frequency combs. We demonstrate a 10 GHz pulse train from an Er-doped femtosecond fiber laser that is coupled into waveguide interleavers and multiplied in repetition rate by a factor of 16. With thermal tuning of the chip elements, we achieve optical and RF sidemode suppression levels of at least −30 dB.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. T. Cundiff, “Metrology: new generation of combs,” Nature 450(7173), 1175–1176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

T. Chiba, “Waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 532–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, “Cascaded coupler Mach-Zehnder channel dropping filters for wavelength-division-multiplexed optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(2), 226–230 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22(5), 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Benedick, A. J.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

Boudot, R.

Bourgeois, P. Y.

Braje, D.

Byun, H.

Cao, S.

Chen, J.

Chiba, T.

T. Chiba, “Waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 532–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collings, B.

Cundiff, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, “Metrology: new generation of combs,” Nature 450(7173), 1175–1176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damask, J.

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D'Odorico, S.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C.

Fendel, P.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

Fortier, T. M.

Glenday, A. G.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guiziou, L.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G.

Hibino, Y.

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, Y.

Kärtner, F. X.

H. Byun, M. Y. Sander, A. Motamedi, H. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Compact, stable 1 GHz femtosecond Er-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5577–5582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22(5), 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersalé, Y.

Kirchner, M.

Kirchner, M. S.

Kitoh, T.

Knox, W.

Kohtoku, M.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, “Cascaded coupler Mach-Zehnder channel dropping filters for wavelength-division-multiplexed optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(2), 226–230 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

Lemke, N.

Li, C. H.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Liu, L.

X. Liu, C. Yu, Z. Zeng, and L. Liu, “Design and applications of planar waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5623, 594–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, C. Yu, Z. Zeng, and L. Liu, “Design and applications of planar waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5623, 594–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

Ludlow, A. D.

Luiten, A. N.

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

Mizuno, T.

Motamedi, A.

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

Oguma, M.

Oskay, W. H.

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Phillips, D. F.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

Sander, M. Y.

Santarelli, G.

Sasselov, D.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

Shibata, T.

Sizmann, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

Szentgyorgyi, A.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. A.

Thorpe, M. J.

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilpers, G.

Wu, K.

Xie, P.

Yu, C.

X. Liu, C. Yu, Z. Zeng, and L. Liu, “Design and applications of planar waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5623, 594–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Z.

X. Liu, C. Yu, Z. Zeng, and L. Liu, “Design and applications of planar waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5623, 594–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, “Metrology: new generation of combs,” Nature 450(7173), 1175–1176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22(5), 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

X. Liu, C. Yu, Z. Zeng, and L. Liu, “Design and applications of planar waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5623, 594–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chiba, “Waveguide interleaving filters,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 532–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

E. Ippen, A. Benedick, J. Birge, H. Byun, L. Chen, G. Chang, D. Chao, J. Morse, A. Motamedi, M. Sander, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, and F. Kärtner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2010, JThC4 (2010).

H. G. Weber and M. Nagazawa, Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Transmission Technology (Springer, 2007).

P. Guan, T. Hirano, K. Harako, Y. Tomoyama, T. Hirooka, and M. Nagazawa, “2.56 Tbit/s/ch polarization-multiplexed DQPSK transmission over 300 km using time-domain optical Fourier transformation,” in ECOC Technical Digest, 2011, We.10.P1.80 (2011).

H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Integrated 2 GHz femtosecond laser based on a planar Er-doped lightwave circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2010, CFE5 (2010).

M. Y. Sander, H. Byun, J. Morse, D. Chao, H. M. Shen, A. Motamedi, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “1 GHz femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2010, CTuII (2010).

M. Y. Sander, H. Byun, M. Dahlem, D. Chao, A. R. Motamedi, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, S. Frolov, H. Hao, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “10 GHz waveguide interleaved femtosecond pulse train,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2011, CThY6 (2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a 2-stage interleaver where each interleaver stage consists of a tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometer to adjust the coupling ratio in the directional couplers and a thermally tunable delay line. Each interleaver chip comprises two interleaver stages to quadruple the input repetition rate. By cascading two interleaver chips with the respective delay line lengths to obtain a 4-stage interleaver, a total multiplication by a factor of 16 of the repetition rate can be achieved. (b) Experimental set-up: A saturable Bragg reflector (SBR) mode-locked 625 MHz Er-doped fiber laser is pumped by two polarization combined semiconductor pump diodes through a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) [19]. The output is amplified in two isolated (isolator ISO) stages before it is coupled into two cascaded waveguide interleaver chips.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum of laser output with 6.1 nm 3-dB bandwidth (blue line); output after first Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) (dotted grey line) and 10 GHz interleaver output with 4 nm FWHM bandwidth (red line). (b) Optical spectrum of the 4-stage interleaver output, optical modes corresponding to 10 GHz line spacing barely resolved by the 0.1 nm resolution of the optical spectrum analyzer used. (c) Time-domain oscilloscope trace of the laser output, pulse train spacing corresponding to ~625 MHz repetition rate. (d) Time-domain oscilloscope trace of the 2-stage interleaver output at 2.5 GHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmission measurements of (a) first interleaver stage at 1.25 GHz with thermal tuning and (b) cascaded first two interleaver stages at 2.5 GHz. (c) Simulated optical transmission (blue line) for 2.5 GHz interleaver output. Optical suppression of frequencies at multiples of the repetition rate of 624 MHz are marked by red dots. (d) Waveguide dispersion (of −5 fs2/mm) limits the modeled optical suppression as the evolution of maximum and minimum at harmonics of the repetition rate at 623 MHz are plotted for one interleaver stage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF Spectrum: (a) Minimum suppression of 14.3 dB for 2.5 GHz output without thermal tuning. (b) Minimum suppression of 30.5 dB for 2.5 GHz output with thermal tuning. (c) Minimum suppression of 15.6 dB for 10 GHz output without thermal tuning. (d) Minimum suppression of 31.3 dB for 10 GHz output with thermal tuning. All measurements were recorded with a resolution bandwidth of 300 kHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measurement set-up to detect the optical heterodyne beat for two cascaded interleaver stages. Different colors (red, green) indicate two different wavelengths of the tunable laser. (b) Minimum optical suppression of 31dB at 1560 nm for 1.25 GHz interleaver. (c) Maximum optical suppression of 34.2 dB around 1560 nm for 2.5 GHz interleaver. Three measurements at different wavelengths are combined in one plot to obtain information about the suppression over one free spectral range. All measurements featured a resolution bandwidth of 300 kHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Heterodyne beat measurement for thermally tuned 2.5 GHz interleaver. The optical beat notes are denoted in red, the grey lines depict multiples of the initial repetition rate.

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