Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator separating principal-states-of-polarization (PSP) control from differential-group-delay (DGD) control by using two independent feedback monitoring signals. To verify the proposed operating principle, we fabricated an automatically adaptive module-type 40-Gb/s PMD compensator on printed circuit boards. The results show that unlike previous typical compensation method of controlling alternately PSP and DGD, the proposed scheme provides independent continuous PSP tracking regardless of DGD control by delay line under rapidly varying PSP condition, thus resulting in stable compensated signal with reduction in compensation time.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarisation dispersion in long single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 22(19), 1029–1030 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Bülow, “System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(5), 696–698 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kogelnik, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “First-order PMD outage for the hinge model,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1208–1210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, and M. Martinelli, “Measurement of PMD tolerance in 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13398–13404 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. C. Bishoff, and B. Perny, “Experimental investigations of the statistical properties of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 819–821 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, and G. J. Foschini, “Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1614–1616 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Gené and P. J. Winzer, “First-order PMD outage prediction based on outage maps,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(13), 1873–1881 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Karlsson, “Polarization mode dispersion induced pulse broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 688–690 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 121–123 (1997).
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  14. R. Noe, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Gungener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch, and W. Haase, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20, and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(9), 1602–1616 (1999).
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  20. D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization effects in aerial fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(1), 1–19 (2005).
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  21. K. Ogaki, M. Nakada, Y. Nagao, and K. Nishijima, “Fluctuation differences in the principal states of polarization in aerial and buried cables,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OFC 2003, 14–15 (2003).
  22. K. H. Han and W. J. Lee, “Tracking and separation of time-varying principal states of polarization in optical fiber link for first-order PMD compensation and its filter-dependent performance,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(4), 268–274 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, H. Miao, and A. M. Weiner, “All-order polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) compensation at 40 Gb/s via hyperfine resolution optical pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1078–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gené and P. J. Winzer, “First-order PMD outage prediction based on outage maps,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(13), 1873–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao, X. Chen, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, D. Chen, D. Peterson, P. Zhang, A. Belisle, L. Dong, and T. Yu, “In-service light path PMD (polarization mode dispersion) monitoring by PMD compensation,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27306–27318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, and M. Martinelli, “Measurement of PMD tolerance in 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13398–13404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Han and W. J. Lee, “Tracking and separation of time-varying principal states of polarization in optical fiber link for first-order PMD compensation and its filter-dependent performance,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(4), 268–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization effects in aerial fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(1), 1–19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “First-order PMD outage for the hinge model,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1208–1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

N. Y. Kim, D. Lee, J. Park, and N. Park, “Comparisons on PMD-compensation feedback methods for bandwidth-rich transmission formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1597–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

R. Noe, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schopflin, C. Gungener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischer, T. Weyrauch, and W. Haase, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20, and 40 Gb/s with various optical equalizers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(9), 1602–1616 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, and G. J. Foschini, “Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1614–1616 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Karlsson, “Polarization mode dispersion induced pulse broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 688–690 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bülow, “System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(5), 696–698 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 121–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. C. Bishoff, and B. Perny, “Experimental investigations of the statistical properties of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 819–821 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarisation dispersion in long single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 22(19), 1029–1030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A. A.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Bao, X.

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization effects in aerial fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(1), 1–19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belisle, A.

Bishoff, J. C.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. C. Bishoff, and B. Perny, “Experimental investigations of the statistical properties of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 819–821 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boffi, P.

Boroditsky, M.

H. Kogelnik, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “First-order PMD outage for the hinge model,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1208–1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brodsky, M.

H. Kogelnik, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “First-order PMD outage for the hinge model,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1208–1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bülow, H.

H. Bülow, “System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(5), 696–698 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chacinski, M.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Chen, L.

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization effects in aerial fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(1), 1–19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chongjin Xie, M.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delbue, R.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Driad, R.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupuy, J.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrario, M.

Fischer, G.

Fishman, D. A.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Foschini, G. J.

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, and G. J. Foschini, “Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1614–1616 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gené, J. M.

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. C. Bishoff, and B. Perny, “Experimental investigations of the statistical properties of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 819–821 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, E.

Gungener, C.

Haase, W.

Hakki, B. W.

B. W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 121–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, K. H.

K. H. Han and W. J. Lee, “Tracking and separation of time-varying principal states of polarization in optical fiber link for first-order PMD compensation and its filter-dependent performance,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(4), 268–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, S.

Jopson, R. M.

H. Kogelnik, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “First-order PMD outage for the hinge model,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1208–1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, and G. J. Foschini, “Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1614–1616 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jorge, F.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

Kim, N. Y.

N. Y. Kim, D. Lee, J. Park, and N. Park, “Comparisons on PMD-compensation feedback methods for bandwidth-rich transmission formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1597–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “First-order PMD outage for the hinge model,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1208–1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, and G. J. Foschini, “Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1614–1616 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Konczykowska, A.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

N. Y. Kim, D. Lee, J. Park, and N. Park, “Comparisons on PMD-compensation feedback methods for bandwidth-rich transmission formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1597–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

K. H. Han and W. J. Lee, “Tracking and separation of time-varying principal states of polarization in optical fiber link for first-order PMD compensation and its filter-dependent performance,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(4), 268–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makon, R. E.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marazzi, L.

Martelli, P.

Martinelli, M.

Miao, H.

L. Xu, H. Miao, and A. M. Weiner, “All-order polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) compensation at 40 Gb/s via hyperfine resolution optical pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1078–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mirvoda, V.

Nelson, L. E.

H. Kogelnik, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “First-order PMD outage for the hinge model,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1208–1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, and G. J. Foschini, “Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1614–1616 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noe, R.

Park, J.

N. Y. Kim, D. Lee, J. Park, and N. Park, “Comparisons on PMD-compensation feedback methods for bandwidth-rich transmission formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1597–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

N. Y. Kim, D. Lee, J. Park, and N. Park, “Comparisons on PMD-compensation feedback methods for bandwidth-rich transmission formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1597–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parolari, P.

Passy, R.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. C. Bishoff, and B. Perny, “Experimental investigations of the statistical properties of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 819–821 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perny, B.

N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. C. Bishoff, and B. Perny, “Experimental investigations of the statistical properties of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 819–821 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, D.

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarisation dispersion in long single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 22(19), 1029–1030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pupalaikis, P. J.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, C. R. Doerr, R. Delbue, and P. J. Pupalaikis, “All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (160-Gb/s) QPSK generation and coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1667–1669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Righetti, A.

Rosenzweig, J.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samuelsson, R.

Sandel, D.

Scheerer, C.

Schopflin, A.

Siano, R.

Steffan, A.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, B.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

Thylen, L.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Waddy, D. S.

D. S. Waddy, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization effects in aerial fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(1), 1–19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. E.

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarisation dispersion in long single-mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 22(19), 1029–1030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

L. Xu, H. Miao, and A. M. Weiner, “All-order polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) compensation at 40 Gb/s via hyperfine resolution optical pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1078–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Westergren, U.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, B. Stoltz, J. Rosenzweig, R. Driad, R. E. Makon, J. Li, and A. Steffan, “ETDM transmitter module for 100-Gb/s ethernet,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 70–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weyrauch, T.

Winzer, P. J.

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[CrossRef]

Xia, T. J.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, H. Miao, and A. M. Weiner, “All-order polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) compensation at 40 Gb/s via hyperfine resolution optical pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1078–1080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Yoshida-Dierolf, M.

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Electron. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (10)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of (a) previous typical and (b) proposed first-order PMD compensators. PC: Polarization controller, PBS: Polarization beam splitter, RFD: RF power detector. DDL: Differential delay line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated results. (a) Filtered RF power spectra versus angle between PSP and PBS axes for given 2-GHz filter bandwidth, 20-ps DGD, and 30-degree launch angle for 40-Gb/s NRZ signal. (b) RF power filtered at 40 GHz versus angle between PSP and PBS axes for various DGD values. (c) DOP of DDL output signal versus DGD for various launch angles while keeping PSP parallel to PBS axes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of (a) fabricated PMD compensator and experimental setup for evaluation and (b) BER measurement. LD: Laser diode, IM: Intensity modulator, EMUX: Electrical multiplexing, PPG: Pulse pattern generator, LN PC: LiNbO3 polarization controller, EBPF: Electrical bandpass filter, OBPF: Optical bandpass filter, BA: Booster amplifier, PA: Preamplifier, CDR: Clock and data recovery, DEMUX: Demultiplexer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) RF feedback signal measured timewise by digital oscilloscope during scan and tracking processes when a filter of 2-GHz bandwidth and 40-GHz center frequency is used. (b) Time variation of RF feedback signal when applying a control voltage to LN PC to find a response time of PSP control.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3-dim and 2-dim view of measured RF feedback signal as a function of angles of half-wave and quarter-wave plates for given (a) 10-ps and (b) 20-ps DGDs, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Oscilloscope view of RF feedback signal showing convergence to minimum by real-time PSP tracking started from when given a worst distortion of 45-degree launch angle and 25-ps DGD. The insets show eye diagrams of PMD-impaired signal and compensated signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured DOP versus DGD with or without optical filter. The sideband filtering provides the largest dynamic range and the highest resolution to DGD tracking.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Temporal variation of PSP and DOP measured before and after PMD compensator. (b) Measured BER before and after PMD compensation.

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